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NICOLAUS.

tures. (AntJi. Graec. vol. iii. p. 91, vol. xiii. p.923, ed. Jacobs.) [W. M. G.]

NICODORUS (Ni/co'Swpos), a native of Man- tineia, who, with the advice of Diagoras the Melian, acted as lawgiver in his native city. (Aelian, V.H. ii. 23.) [C.P.M.]

NICOLAUS (NiK(5Aaos, niko\cws), historical. 1. Father of bulis, the Spartan. (Herod, vii. 134.)

2. Son of Bulis, was associated with Aneristus in his embassy to Persia, in B. c. 430, and, toge­ther with him, was put to death by the Athenians. [aneristus.]

3. A Syracusan, who lost two sons in the war with Athens, but at its conclusion, in b.c. 413, endeavoured to persuade his countrymen to spare the Athenian prisoners. (Diod. xiii. 19—27.)

4. An Aetolian, and a general of Ptolemy IV. (Philopator). In b. c. 219 we find him besieging Ptolema'is, which was held by the traitor Theodotus, who had revolted from Ptolemy to Antiochus the Great. Nicolaus, however, abandoned the siege on the approach of the Syrian king [lagoras]. In the same year he did much towards baffling the attempt of Antiochus on Dura or Dora in Phoe­nicia, by sending constant succours to the besieged. In b. c. 218 he was invested by Ptolemy with the supreme command in Coele-Syria, an appointment fully warranted, according to Polybius, by his military experience and bravery. He was, how­ever, dislodged by Antiochus and his generals from a strong position which he had taken up be­tween the range of Mount Libanus and the sea near the town of Porphyreon, and was obliged to seek safety in a precipitate flight towards Sidon. It may be conjectured that' after this he deserted to Antiochus: at least, we find the name of Nico­laus of Aetolia mentioned among the generals of the Syrian king in his campaign in Hyrcania, b. o. 209. (Polyb. v. 61, 66, 68, 69, x. 29.) [E. B.]

NICOLAUS (NiKoAaos), literary. Nicolaus is the name of a great many writers and eccle­siastics in the times of the Byzantine empire, but only the most important of them are mentioned below. A full list of them is given in Fabricius (Bibl. Graec, vol. xi. p. 286).

1. artabasda ('Apragao-STjs), of Smyrna, of uncertain but late age, is called in a Vatican ma­nuscript 'ApTa€a<r5?)s, aptfl/urjTiKos /cai yeu^eTpTjs 6 'Pa§5a. He was the author of a work on the art of counting with the fingers ("EKtypaffts rov SaKrvhiKov jue'rpou), which has been published by F. Morel, Paris, 1614 ; Possin. Catena Graec. Patrum in Marcum, p. 449, Rome, 1673 ; J. A. Fabric. Observ. in varia Loca Novi Testam. p. 159, Hamb. 1712 ; and J. G. Schneider, Edogaephysicae, p. 477. (Scholl, Geschichte der Griechischen Lit-teratur, vol. iii. pp. 345—347.)

2. cabasilas. [Caba-silas.]

3. chalcocondyles. [chalcocondyles.]

4. Of constantinople, of which he was pa­triarch from a. d. 1084 to 1111, wrote several decrees and letters, of which an account is given by Cave. (Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. p. 156, ed, Basil.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p. 285.)

5. damascenus. [damascenus.]

6. euboicus. [secundinus.]

7. hagiotheodoretus, was archbishop of Athens in the twelfth century, in the reign of Manuel Comnenus. He is known as a jurist, who wrote a commentary upon the Basilica. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p. 633.)

NICOLAUS.

8. hydruntius, lived at the beginning of the thirteenth century, in the reign of Alexius IV. Comnenus, and was distinguished by his opposition to the Latin church, against which he published several works, of which an account is given by Cave (ad ann. 1201) and Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p. 287).

9. Of methone in the Peloponnesus, of which place he was archbishop, lived probably in the twelfth century, and also wrote many works against the Latin church, for an account of which we must again refer to Fabricius (vol. xi. p. 290) and the authorities which he cites. Nicolaus of Methone also deserves to be mentioned as one of the opponents of the Neo-Platonic philosophers. He published a work in reply to the SrotxeiWis StoXoyiKT] of Proclus: this work of Nicolaus was published for the first time by J. Th.Voemel, under the title ofNicolai Meihonensis Refutatio Institutions TJieologicae Procli Platonici, Francf. 1825.

10. Of myrae. [See No. 17.] 31. myrepsus. [See below, No. 3.]

12. pepagomenus. [pepagomenus.]

13. praepositus. [See below, No. 4.]

14. rhabda. [See No. 1, and rhabda.]

15. secundinus. [secundinus.]

16. Of smyrna. [See No. 1.]

17. The sophist, lived under Leo I., and down to the reign of Anastasius, consequently in the latter half of the fifth century, was a pupil of Pro­clus. Suidas (s. v. njk.) mentions two works of his, npoyv/jLvda-ftaTa and MeAercu prjropi/ccu. Part of the TlpoyviuLj/dff/jiata had been previously published as the work of Libanius, but has more recently ap­peared as the work of Nicolaus, in Walz's Rhetor. Graec. vol. i. pp. 266—420. Suidas (s.v.) men­tions another sophist, a native of Myrae in Cilicia, and a pupil of Lachares, who taught at Constan­tinople, and was the author of a Tex^i? pTjropi/o} and MeAercu. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 134 ; Westermann, Geschichte der Griech. Beredtsamkeit, §104, n. 10.)

NICOLAUS (NtKo'Aaos), the name of several physicians, who are often confounded, and whom it does not seem possible to distinguish with certainty.

1. The person quoted by Galen (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. v. 11, vol. xiii. p. 831) must have lived in or before the second century after Christ. He may, perhaps, be the physician, of whose medical formulae one is quoted by Paulus Aegineta (iv. 37, vii. 17. pp. 520, 678) and Nico­laus Myrepsus (x. 143, p.579). A pharmaceutical author of the same name is said by Fabricius (Bibl. Gr. vol. xiii. pp. 5, 346, ed. vet.) to be quoted by Aetius, but the writer has not been able to find the name in the place referred to (x. 27).

2. A native of Laodiceia, who lived, according to Abu-1-Faraj (Hist. Dynast, p. 88), in the latter half of the fourth century after Christ. He wrote a work " De Summa Philosophiae Aristotelicae," which was translated into Syriac by Honain Ibn Ishak ; another " De Plantis," which is quoted by 'Abdu-1-Latif (Histor. AegyptiCompend. pp. 19, 27) ; and a third, " Liber Responsionis ad illos qui Rein unam esse statuunt Intellectum et Intel-ligibilia." To these Wenrich (De Auctor. Graecor. Version, et Comment. Syriac* Arab. Armen. et Pers. Lips. 1842, p. 294) adds two others, viz. " Com­pendium Philosophiae Aristoteleae,1' and "Aris-totelis Historia Animalium in Compendium re-dacta." (See also De Sacy's Note on Abdu 1-Latif

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