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NICIAS.

belong to Nicetas, and his opinion has been very generally adopted, although the matter seems to be involved in great doubt. (Gennadius, de Viris Illustr. 22 ; Schonemann, Bibliotheca Patrum Lat. vol.ii. §17.) [W.R.]

NICETAS or NICAEAS was, as we have noticed above, bishop of Aquileia in the middle of the fifth centur}1". His remains have been care­fully collected from various sources by Mai in the " Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio e Vaticanis Codicibus edita," 4to. Rom. 1833, vol. vii. p. 314— 340. They consist of four short tracts : — I. De Ratione FideL 2. De Spiritus Sancti Potentia. 3. De diversis Appellationibus Domino nostro Jesu Christo convenientibus. 4. Explanatio Symboli habita ad competenteS) together with six fragments of a few lines each.

nicetas, who was bishop of Treves in the middle of the sixth century, does not fall within the limits of this work. [W. R.]

NICETAS (Ni/oiras), a physician, to whom is addressed one of the letters of Theophylactus, archbishop of Bulgaria (Ep. 55). He is there styled " Physician to the King," and must have lived in the eleventh century after Christ. He is, perhaps, the same person as the compiler of a col­lection of surgical treatises, who is supposed to have lived at Constantinople at the end of the eleventh or the beginning of the twelfth -century after Christ. It contains extracts from the works of Hippocrates, Soranus, Rufus, Galen, Oribasius, Paulus Aegineta, and other writers of less note ; and is to be found in MS. in the Libraries at Paris (Codd. 2247, 2248), and Florence. Of the Laurentian MS., which is very ancient and valu­able, a full account is given by Bandini in his Catal. Cod. Graec. Biblioth. Laurent. (vol. iii. p. 53, &c. cod. 7), where he has also inserted a com­plete list of the chapters contained in the volume, to the number of five hundred and eighteen. A part of the contents of this MS. was published at Florence, 1754 fol. by Antonio Cocchi, with the title : — " Graecorum Chirurgici Libri: Sorani tmus de Fracturarum Signis, Oribasii duo de Fractis et de Luxatis, e Collectione Nicetae," &c. &c. The editor has added a Latin translation, and some valuable notes. The Commentary of Apollonius Citiensis on Hippocrates " De Articulis" was extracted from this collection. [apollonius, p. 245J. (See Choulant's Handb. der Bucher-kundefiir die Aeltere Medicin; Dietz's Preface to his Scholia in Hippocr. et Gal.) [W. A. G.j

NICIAS (Ni/a'as), historical. 1. A native of Gortyn, in Crete. He was connected with the Athenians by the ties of proxenia, and it was at his request that the reinforcements sent to Phor-mion, when engaged on the west of Greece in b. c. 429, were ordered to stop on their way at Crete, to attack Cydonia. (Thuc. ii. 85.)

2. The father of Hagnon, the Athenian general. (Thuc. ii. 58.)

3. One of the most celebrated of the Athenian generals engaged during the Peloponnesian war. He was the son of Niceratus, from whom he inherited a large fortune, derived mainly from the silver mines at Laureium, of which he was a very large lessee, employing in them as many as 1000 slaves. (Xen. Mem. ii. 5. § 2, de Vect. 4. § 14 ; Athen. vi. p. 272, e.) His property was valued at 100 talents. (Lys. pro Arist. Bonis, p. 648.) From this cause, combiner! with his unambitious

VOL. II.

character, and his aversion to all dangerous inno­vations, he was naturally brought into connection with the aristocratical portion of his fellow-citizens. He was several times associated with Pericles, as strategus ; and his great prudence and high character gained for him considerable influence. On the death of Pericles he came forward more openly as the opponent of Cleon, and the other demagogues of Athens ; but from his military reputation, the mildness of his character, and the liberal use which he made of his great wealth, he was looked upon with respect, and some measure of attachment, by all classes of the citizens. His timidity led him to buy off the attacks of the sycophants. This feature of his character was ridiculed by more than one comic poet of the day. The splendour with which he discharged the office of choregus exceeded anything that had been seen before. On one occasion, when charged with the conduct of the Theoria to Delos, he made a re­markable display of his wealth and munificence. To prevent the confusion which usually ensued when the Chorus landed at Delos amidst the crowd of spectators, he landed first at Rheneia; and having had a bridge prepared before he left Athens, it was thrown across the channel between Rheneia and Delos, in the course of the night, and by day­break it was ready, adorned in the most sump­tuous manner with gilding and tapestry, for the orderly procession of the Chorus. After the ceremonies were over he consecrated a brazen palm tree to Apollo, together with a piece of land, which he purchased at the cost of 10,000 drachmae, directing that the proceeds of it should be laid out by the Delians iii sacrifices and feasts; the only condition which he annexed being, that they should pray for the blessing of the god upon the founder. His strong religious feeling was perhaps as much concerned in this dedication, as his desire of popularity. It was told of him that he sacri­ficed every day, and even kept a soothsayer in his house, that he might consult the will of the gods not only about public affairs, but likewise respect­ing his own private fortunes. Aristophanes ridi­cules him rather severely in the Equites for his. timidity and superstition (I. 28, &c., 80, 112, 358). The excessive dread which Nicias entertained of informers led him to keep as much as possible in retirement. He made himself difficult of access ; and the few friends who were admitted to his pri­vacy industriously spread the belief that he devoted himself with such untiring zeal to the public inter­ests, as to sacrifice enjoyment, sleep, and even health, in the service of the state. His character­istic caution was the distinguishing feature of his military career. He does not seem to have dis­played any very great ability, still less anything like genius, in the science of strategy ; but he was cautious and wary, and does not appear on a single occasion to have been guilty of any act of remiss-ness, unless it were in the siege of Syracuse. Plence his military , operations were almost inva­riably successful. In b. c. 427 he led an expedi­tion against the island of Minoa, which lies in front of Megara, arid took it. (Thuc. iii. 51.) In the following year he led an armament of sixty triremes, with 2000 heavy-armed soldiers, against the island of Melos. He ravaged the island, but the town held out ; and the troops being needed for an attack upon Tanagra, he withdrew, and, after ravaging the coast of Locris, returned homo.

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