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On this page: Mutilus – Mutines – Mutius – Muto – Mutunus – Myagrus – Mycalesides – Mycalessia – Mycene



year he had to resist Sulla, who had penetrated into Samnium, but he experienced a total defeat, was badly wounded in the engagement, and fled with a few troops to Aesernia. (Appian, B. C. i. 40, 42, 51 ; Oros. v. 18; Veil. Pat. ii. 16; Diod. xxxvii. Ed. 1.) The name of this Samnite leader is given differently ; but C. Papius Mutilus seems to have been his real name. Orosius calls him Papius Mutilus; Velleius terms him Papius Muti-lius ; and Appian styles him in two passages (i. 40, 42) C. Papius, and in the third (i. 51) Motilus, who is evidently the same person as the one he had previously called C. Papius. Diodorus names him C. Aponius Motulus (MoroAos). The name Mu­tilus has been conjectured by a recent writer to be the same as Metellus, but there is no certainty on this point. (Comp. Prosper M£rimee, E'tudes sur I'Histoire Romaine, vol. i. pp. 137, 138, Paris, 1844.)

Appian relates (B. C. iv. 25), in his account of the proscription of b. c. 43, that there was one Statius proscribed who had distinguished himself greatly as a leader of the Samnites in the Social war, and who had afterwards been admitted into the Roman senate on account of the renown of his exploits, his wealth, and his noble birth. He was then eighty years of age, and his name was put down on the fatal list on account of his wealth. Now, as there is no one known in the Social war of the name of Statius, Wesseling conjectured (ad .Diod. I. c.) that we ought to read Papius instead ; and this correction has been generally received by subsequent writers. The principal objection to it, however, is that Livy speaks (Epit. 89) of the death of a Mutilus in the proscription of Sulla; and from the prominence given to the death of this person in the Epitome, it would almost appear as if he intended the great Samnite leader. (Comp. Prosper M^rimee, Ibid. vol. i. p. 325.)

MUTILUS, PA'PIUS, a flatterer of Tiberius, proposed in the senate, a. d. 16, that the 13th of September — the day on which Scribonius Libo Drusus destroyed himself—should be observed as a public holiday, and that offerings should be made at the shrines of Jupiter, Mars, and Concordia. (Tac. Ann. ii. 32.)

MUTINES (Mourfj/ay, Polybius calls him mut-Toras), an African by birth, belonging to the half-caste race called the Lybio-Phoenicians. He was brought up and trained in war under the eye of Hannibal, and having given frequent proofs of his ability and activity as an officer, was selected by that general to take the command in Sicily after the death of Hippocrates. He accordingly joined Epicydes and Hanno at Agrigentum before the close of the year b. c. 212, and being placed at the head of the Numidian cavalry, quickly spread his ravages through great part of the island. Marcellus was now compelled to turn his arms against this new enemy, and advanced as far as the river Himera, where he sustained a severe check from the cavalry of Mutines ; but shortly after the jea­lousy of Hanno and Epicydes prompted them to give battle during a temporary absence of the Nu­midian leader, and they were totally defeated. (Polyb. ix. 22 ; Liv. xxv. 40, 41.) But even after this blow Mutines was soon able to resume the offensive, and, instead of shutting himself up within the walls of Agrigentum, carried his daring and destructive excursions into every part of the island. Laevinus, the new consul, who had suc-


ceeded Marcellus in the command, seems to have been wholly unable, to repress these sallies ; but the envy and jealousy of the Carthaginian general at length effected what the Roman arms could not, and Hanno having been prompted by these base motives to the dangerous step of superseding Mu­tines in his command, the latter, fired with resent­ment at the indignity, immediately entered into communication with the Romans, and betrayed Agrigentum into the hands of Laevinus. (Liv. xxvi. 21, 40; Zonar. ix. 7.) For this service he was re­warded with the rights of a Roman citizen, in addi­tion to other honours. (Liv. xxvii. 5.) [E. H. B.]

MUTIUS, a Roman architect of very great skill, who flourished in the first century b. c., and built the temple Honoris et Virtutis Marianae. (Vitruv. vii. Praef. § 17.) . [P. S.]

MUTO or MUTTO, Q. was a man of the lowest rank, who was prosecuted by L. Laelius. (Cic. pro Scaur. 2, pro Fundan. Fr. i. p. 445, of the fourth volume of Orelli's Cicero.) [W. B. D.]

MUTUNUS or MUTINUS, that is, the phallus, or Priapus, which was believed to be the most powerful averter of demons, and of all evil that resulted from pride and bpastfulness, and the like. The name is probably connected with pvrrds or juv-njs, i. e. 6 irpbs rd d<£/3o8i<nct e«:Ae- \v[j.€vos. Mutunus is usually mentioned with the surname Tutunus or Tutinus, which seems to be connected with the verb tueri. A public Mutunus, that is, the one who averted evil from the city of Rome and the republic, had a sanctuary in the upper part of Velia, which existed there down to the time of Augustus, when it was removed out­ side the city. (Arnob. adv. Gent. iv. 7 ; August. De Civ. Dei, iv. 11; Lactant. i. 20; Tertull. Apol. 25; Fest. p. 154, ed. Muller.) [L. S.J

MYAGRUS, a Phocaean, is mentioned by Pliny among those statuaries who made athletas et armatos etvenatores sacriftcantesqite (H.N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 34), and by Vitruvius as one of those ar­ tists who failed to attain to eminence, not for the want of industry and skill, but of good fortune (iii. Praef. § 2). [P. S.]

MYCALESIDES (Mu/caA^o-tSes), the moun­ tain nymphs of Mycale. (Callim. Hymn, in Del. 50 ; Paus. vii. 4. § 1.) [L. S.]

MYCALESSIA (MvKaATjtrafa), a surname of Demeter, derived from Mycalessus in Boeotia, where the goddess had a sanctuary. (Paus. ix. 19. § 4.) [L. S.]

MYCENE (MvKTjVrj), a daughter of Inachus and wife of Arestor, from whom the town of Mycenae or Mycene was believed to have derived its name. (Horn. Od. ii. 120 ; Paus. ii. 16. § 3.) [L. S.] ^MYCERI'NUS, or MECHERI'NUS (Mu/ce- pivos, Me^epTvos), was son of Cheops, king of Egypt, according to Herodotus and Diodorus, and succeeded his uncle Chephren on the throne. His conduct formed a strong contrast to that of his father and uncle, being as mild and just as theirs had been tyrannical. On the death of his daughter, he placed her corpse within the hollow body of a wooden cow, which was covered with gold. Herodotus tells us that it was still to be seen at Sai's in his time. We further hear of My- cerinus that, being warned by an oracle that he should die at the end of six years, because he had been a gentle ruler and had not wreaked the ven­ geance of the gods on Egypt, he gave himself up to.

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