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homilies' of St. Chrysostom on the Epistle to the Hebrews. He had also previously made a Latin translation of the treatise of Gaudentius on Music [gaudentius], as we learn from Cassiodorus, who calls Mucianus " vir disertissimus." (Cassiod. Divin. Lect. 8.) The translation of the above-.mentioned homilies of Chrysostom is still extant, and has been highly praised by Savil and the other editors of and commentators on Chrysostom. It was first printed at Cologne, 1530, 8vo., and subsequently appeared in the Latin editions of the works of this father, in which Mucianus is erroneously called Mutius. In the Greek editions of the Homilies the translation of Hervetus is usually given ; but Montfaucon has also printed in the twelfth volume of his edition the version of Mucianus. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. pp. 558, 559.)
MUGILLANUS, the name of a family of the Gens Papiria at Rome. The Mugillani were a Latin family from Mugilla. (Dionys. viii. 36.)
1. L. papirius L. p. mugillanus, was consul for the first time in b. c. 444, and for the second in b. c. 427. No remarkable event signalised .either of his consulates, but Mugillanus was one of .the original pair of Censors. (Liv. iv. 7, 8, 30 ; Dionys. xi. 62 ; Fasti.)
2. L. papirius L. p. L. n. mugillanus son probably of the preceding, was consular tribune in b. c. 422. As interrex for holding the plebeians comitia in the following year, Mugillanus was the author of a law directing the quaestors to be chosen indifferently from the patricians and the plebeians (Liv. iv. 44). He was censor in b. c. 418 (Fasti).
3. M. papirius L. p. mugillanus was consular tribune in b. c. 418, and again in 416, and consul in 411 (Liv. iv, 45, 47; Fasti). Livy, hovyever, in 411 gives Atratinus, not Mugillanus, as the cognomen of the Papirius consul in that year. (Ib. 52.)
MULCIBER, a surname of Vulcan, which seems to have been given to the god as a euphe mism, and for the sake of a good omen, that he might not consume by ravaging fire the habitations and property of men, but might kindly and bene volently aid men in their pursuits. It occurs very frequently in the Latin poets. (Ov. Met. ii. 5 ; Ars Am. ii. 562.) [L. S.]
MUMMIA ACHAICA, grand-daughter of Q. Lutatius Catulus (catulus, No. 4], and great grand-daughter of L. Mummius Achaicus [MuM- mius, No. 3], was the wife of Serv. Galba, and mother of the emperor Galba and his brother Caius. (Sueton. Galb. 3.) [W. B. D.j
MUMMIUS. 1. L. mummius was tribune of the plebs in b. c. 187. He opposed the bill of M. Porcius Cato for inquiring into the amount of monies paid by Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, as the price of peace in b. c 188, to the brothers P.
and L. Scipiones. Mummius, intimidated by Cato, withdrew his opposition, and the bill was passed. He was praetor in b. c. 177, and obtained Sardinia for his province. In his praetorship Mummius was instructed by the senate to put in force a decree for dismissing to their respective cities all residents at Rome, who were possessed merely of the Jus Latii. (Liv. xxxvii. 54, xli. 8.)
2. Q. mummius, brother of the preceding, was his colleague in the tribunate of b. c. 187. (Liv. xxxvii. 54.)
3. L. mummius L. p. L. n. achaicus, son of No. 1, was praetor in b. c. 154. His province was the further Spain, where, after some serious reverses, he finally retrieved his reputation by victories over the Lusitanians and Blasto-Phoenicians, and triumphed De Lusitaneis in the following year. (Appian, Hispan. 56—57 ; Eutrop. iv. 9 ; Fasti.) Mummius was consul in b.c. 146, when he won, for himself the surname of Achaicus, by the destruction of Corinth, the conquest of Greece, and the establishment of the Roman province of Achaia* His surname was the more remarkable from the circumstance that Mummius was the first self-raised man—novus homo—who attained a national appellation from military service. From the double name of his descendant, Mummia Achaica, the surname appears to have been perpetuated in the Mummian family. The Achaean league, under its weak and rash leaders, the praetors Critolaus and Diaeus, had been for some time inspired by a warlike spirit alien to their interests and the sounder policy of earlier years. Q. Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, praetor in b. c. 148, had humbled Greece by his victories; but his leniency deceived the Achaean chiefs, and they persuaded themselves that Rome was unable to complete its conquest. They had assembled an army in the Isthmus shortly before the arrival of Mummius. He promptly dismissed his predecessor, Metellus, defeated the army of the league, whose hasty levies were no match for the discipline of the legions, and entered Corinth without opposition, since the garrison and principal inhabitants had abandoned it, and the spirit of Greece was at length completely broken, The city was burnt, rased, and given up to pillage: the native Corinthians were sold for slaves, and the rarest specimens of Grecian art, which the luxury and opulence of centuries had accumulated, were given up to the rapacity of an ignorant conqueror. Polybius the historian, who, on the fall of Corinth, had come from Africa to mitigate, if possible, the calamities of his countrymen, saw Roman soldiers playing at draughts .upon the far-famed picture of Dionysus by Aristides; and Mummius himself was so unconscious of the real value of his prize, that he sold the rarer works of painting, sculpture, and carving, to the king of Pergamus, and exacted securities from the masters of vessels who conveyed the remainder to Italy, to replace by equivalents any picture or statue lost or injured in the passage. But although ignorant, Mummius was more scrupulous in, his selection of the spoils than the Roman generals of later times, or even than some of his contemporaries. He appropriated secular or private property alone, and religiously abstained from all that had been consecrated to religious uses. Mummius remained in Greece during the greater part of b.c. 146—145, in the latter year with the title of proconsul. He arranged the fiscal and municipal constitution of