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M17CIA.

canonarchus in the convent of St. Saba. Bollandus gives a. d. 620 as the date of his death. After visiting a large number of the monasteries in Syria, Egypt, and the West, he applied himself to the composition of a work giving an account of the Jives of the monks of that age, down to the time of Heraclius. It was addressed to Sophronius or Sophronas, his friend and pupil, who accompanied him on his travels, and became subsequently patri­arch of Jerusalem. The work was entitled Aei^uv or Ae/jU<w//apioj/, or Neos irapddeKros. In the edi­tions it is divided into 219 chapters ; Photius speaks of it as consisting of 304 S^r^ara, but mentions that in other manuscripts it was divided into a larger number of chapters. In compiling it Moschus did not confine himself to giving the re­sults of his own obsei vations, but availed himself of the labours of predecessors in the same field. His narratives contain a plentiful sprinkling of the marvellous. He every where attacks the heresy of Severus Acephalus. The style of the work, as Photius says, is mean and unpolished. But Joannes Damascenus and Nicephorus assigned Sophronius himself as the author of the work, from which it has been supposed that it was in reality mainly his work,- though the name of Joannes Moschus was allowed to stand as that of the writer. The work was first published in an Italian translation, and incorporated in several collections of lives of the saints. The Latin translation of Ambrosius Camal-dulensis is in the seventh volume of Aloysius Lipo-mannus, Venice, 1558. It appeared in Greek and Latin in the second volume of the Auctarium BibL Patrurn Ducaeanum^ Paris, 1624, and in the Bi-bliotheca Patrumt Paris, 1644, 1654. (Phot. Cod. 1.99 ; Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. x. p. 124 ; Voss. de Hist. Graec. p. 334, Westermann.) [C. P. M.] MOSCHUS, VULCA'TIUS, was banished from Rome, and admitted as a citizen of Massilia, to which town he left his property. (Tac. Ann. iv. 43.)

. MOSTIS, a king of Epeirus, known only to us from coins, a specimen of which is annexed.

COIN OF MOSTIS.

MOTHONE (MofloJi/T?), a daughter of Oeneus, from whom the town of Mothone was believed to have derived its name. (Paus. iv. 35. § 1.) [L.S.]

MUCI A. 1. The elder daughter of Q. Mucius Scaevola, the celebrated augur, and Laelia, daughter of C. Laelius Sapiens [laelia, No. 1]. She married L. Licinius Crassus, the orator, and was renowned for her conversational excellence. (Cic. Brut. 58. § 211, de Orat. iii. 12 ; Val. Max. viii. 8. § 1 ; Quint. Inst. i. 1. § 6.)

2. With the epithet tertia, was the daughter of Q. Mucius Scaevola, the augur, consul in b. c. 95. She was a cousin (soror) of Q. Metellus Celer, consul in b c. 60, and of Q. Metellus Nepos, consul in b. c. 57. Mucia married Cn. Pompey, by whom she had two sons, Cneius and Sextus,and a daughter, Pompeia. She was divorced by Pompey just be­fore his return from the Mithridatic war in b. c. 62.

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MUCIANUS.

Mucia next married M. Aemilius Scaurus, a step­son of the dictator Sulla. In b. c. 39, Mucia, at the earnest request of the Roman people, went to Sicily to mediate between her son Sex. Pompey and Augustus. She was living at the time of the battle of Actium, b.c. 31. Augustus treated her with great respect. (Ascon. in Scaur, p. 19, Orelli ; Cic. ad Fam. v. 2,ac? Ait. i. 12 ; Dion Cass. xxxvii. 49, xlviii. 16, li. 2, Ivi. 38 ; Appian. B. C. v. 69, 72 ; Suet. Caes. 50 ; Plut. Pomp. 42 ; Zonar. x. 5 ; Hieron. in Jovin. i. 48.) Whether the Mucia mentioned by Valerius Maximus (ix. 1. § 8) be the same person is uncertain.

MUCI A GENS, was a very ancient patrician house, ascending to the earliest aera of the republic (Dionys. v. 25 ; Liv. ii. 12). It existed in later times, however, only as a plebeian house. Its only cognomens are cord us and scaevola, under which are given all persons of the name of Mucius. [W.B. D.]

MUCIANUS, P. LICI'NIUS CRASSUS DIVES, was the son of P. Mucius Scaevola, consul b. c. 175, and brother of P. Mucius Scaevola, who' was consul b.c. 133, in the year in which Tib. Gracchus lost his life. (Plut. Tib. Gracchus, 9.) Mucianus was adopted by P. Licinius Cras­sus Dives, who was the son of P. Licinius Crassus Dives, consul B. c. 205. This at least is Drumann's opinion, who thinks that it is more probable that he was adopted by the son than by the father. On being adopted he assumed, according to Roman fashion, the name of Crassus, with the addition of Mucianus, which indicated his former gens. Cicero (de Orat. i. 56) speaks of his being a candidate for the aedileship ; and he gives an anecdote of Serv. Sulpicius Galba, who was a distin­guished orator, pressing Crassus hard on a question of law, and of Crassus being compelled to support his legal opinion against the equitable arguments of Servius by referring to the writings of his brother, P. Mucius, and of Sext. Aelius.

Mucianus attained the dignity of pontifex maxi-mus, and A. D. 131 he was elected consul, in which year he left Rome to conduct the war against Aristonicus in Asia, who maintained his claim to the kingdom of Pergamus against the will of A t-talus III., who had bequeathed it to the Romans. Crassus was the first pontifex maximus, according to Livy (Epit. 59) who went beyond the limits of Italy ; but this is not true, unless Scipio Nasica was deprived of his office, for Nasica was ponti­fex maximus B. c. 133, after the death of Tib. Gracchus, and retired to Asia, where he soon died. (Pint. Tib. Gracchus, 21.) Crassus succeeded Nasica in the pontificate. Crassus was unsuccess­ful in the war. He was attacked at the siege of Leucae by Aristonicus, and defeated. Between Elaea and Smyrna he was overtaken by the Thracian body-guard of Aristonicus ; and to avoid being made prisoner, he provoked one of the Thracian s to kill him. His head was carried to Aristonicus.

The historian Sempronius Asellio (Gellius,, i. 13) says that Crassus possessed five things, which of all good things are the greatest and the chief. He was most wealthy, noble, eloquent, most learned in the law, and pontifex maximus. The same histo­rian records an instance of the unreasonable severity with which he punished at the siege of Leucae a deviation from the strict letter of his orders. Cras­sus had two daughters ; the elder Licinia, was the

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