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ticus." We believe that it is in most cases vain to attempt to assign them to one or the other, and therefore give in one list the whole of those which have been printed. 1. Scholia ad Homeri Iliados Librum I. et //., published by Jo. Scher-pezeelius, 8vo, Harderwyk (in Guelderland), 1702, and re-issued, with a new title-page and an ad­ditional preface, at Utrecht, 1719. In the title-page Moschopulus is termed Byzantinus, but whether on MS. authority is not clear: in the work itself, at the head of the Scholia, they are described as 'EjUcwouTjAoi; rov Motr^oTrouAou re%vo-\oyia Kal dvdirrvl-is rwv Ae|ewi>. They are chiefly or wholly grammatical. A Paraphrasis of Homer by Moschopulus, different from these scholia, is said to be extant in the Vatican library (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p, 401 ; butcomp. Scherpezeelius, Praef. in Moschopuli Scholia in Homeruin). 2. Too ffoQwrdrov Kal \oytwrdrov Kvpiov rov MoorxoTrouAov dv^iov rov KprjTTjs e roov epycav Kal TJ^uepw;/ 'Hcrtodou, Sapientissimi Doctissimigue Manuelis Moschopuli Cretensis Pa-truelis Interpretatio Operum et Dierum Hesiodi. These scholia are included wholly or in part in the editions of Hesiod, 4to. Venice, 1537, and Basel, 1544, and in the edition of Heinsius, 4 to. Ley den, 1603. 3. Scholia in Euripidis Tragoedias, employed by Arsenius, archbishop of Monembasia, in his collection of Scholia in Septem. Euripidis Tragoedias, 8vo. Ven. 1534. Scholia on the Odae of Pindar (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. p. 67), and perhaps on the Ajax Flagellifer and Electra of Sophocles (see Scherpezeel. ibid.), by Moschopulus, are extant in MS. 4. Grammatical Artis Graecae. Methodus ; consisting of three parts, i. Erotemata a. Qttoe-stiones ; ii. Canones ; iii. Declinationes s. Declina-Uonis Paradigmata. This work was first printed with the Erotemata of Demetrius Chalcondylas, 4to. about A. d. 1493, but the copies have no note either of time or place ; nor has the work of Mo­schopulus any general title ; that which we have prefixed is from the edition of Walder, 8vo. Basel, 1540. 5. T«*> 6vo[j,dro)V 'attjkwj/ a-vXXoy1^, Vocum Atticarum Collectio. The words are professedly collected from the Ei/coves, Icones s. Imaginest of Philostratus, and from the poets. This sylloge was given at the end of the Dictionarium Graecum pub­lished by Aldus, fol. Venice, 1524, and was printed again, with the similar works of Thomas Magister and Phrynicus, 8vo. Paris, 1532. A MS. of this work, as already observed, expressly ascribes it to the nephew. 6. Hep! rwv ovofjidrcav Kal prj.u.drwv <rw/Ta|ews, De Construction^ Nominum et Verborum; and 7. Hept TrpotrwStwf, De Accentibus, both in­cluded in the little volume of grammatical treatises published by Aldus and Asulanus, Venice, 1525. The De Accentibus was reprinted with the work of Varennius on the same subject, 12mo, Paris, 1544, and again in 1559. 8. Ilepl ypaufjLariK'fjs yv/j.-va<ria.s, De Grammatica Eocercitatione, formerly ascribed to Basil, the Greek father, and printed in several of the older editions of his works. This work is ascribed to Moschopulus by Crusius ( Turco-Graec. p. 44), and is substantially coincident with the work mentioned next. 9. Uspl <rx^^v s. De fiatione examinandae Orationis Libellus, 4to. Paris, 3545, and reprinted at Vienna, 1773. 10. De Vocum Passionibus, firt»t published by G. H. Schaef-fer, in the appendix to his edition of Gregorius Corinthius De Dialectis, 8vo. Leipzig, 1811 (pp. 675—681, conf. not. in pag. 908). 11. Excerpta


in Agapetum, given by Fabricius, Bibl. Graec. vol; xii. p. 306, ed. vet. vol. viii. p. 41, ed. Harles.; 12. 'E?riTOfj.^ vea ypa^ariK-ijs. The first book of this was published by F. N. Titze, 8vo. Leipzig and Prague, 1822 ; it is a work of interest as treating of the ancient Greek pronunciation of the diphthongs. The perfect work is probably contained in MS., in the library of St. Mark, at Venice. Many other works of the Moschopuli are extant in MS. Titze prefixed to this work the valuable Diatribe de Mo-schopulis already quoted. He thinks that Moscho­pulus of Crete wrote a large work on grammar, en­titled 'Epw-nfjuara, Erotemata Grammatica, of which many of those extant under his name, in MS. or in. print, are fragments or detached portions. One of the Moschopuli wrote a little .treatise, De Quadratis Magicis, on the mathematical puzzle of arranging numbers, so that the sum of them, whether added horizontally, vertically, or diagonally, shall be the same. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. pp. 401, 407, vol. ii. pp. 67, 259, vol. vi. pp. 190, 298, 319, 322 —324, vol. viii. p. 41, vol. ix. p. 416, .and the authors cited in the body of the article.) [J. C. M.J MOSCHUS (moo-xos). 1. A grammarian and bucolic poet, a native of Syracuse. He lived about the close of the third century b. c., and, ac­cording to Suidas (s. v. Mocrxos), was acquainted with Aristarchus. He calls himself a pupil of Bion, in the Idyl in which he bewails the death of the latter [BioNJ. But it is difficult to say whether he means more than that he imitated Bion. Of his personal history we know nothing further. Of his compositions we have extant four idyls. 1. ''Epcos SpaTrgTTjs. 2. EupcoTnj. 3. ^inrdifiios "Biwos. 4. Meydpa. The last of these is written in the Ionic dialect, with but few Dorisms. Be­sides these larger pieces, there are three small fragments and an epigram extant. The idyls of Moschus were at first intermixed with those of Theocritus, and one or two of those ascribed to Theocritus have been, though without sufficient reason, supposed to be the productions of Moschus, as, for example, the 20th and 28th. Eudocia (p. 408) ascribes to Theocritus the third of the Idyls of Moschus. But they have since been carefully separated, on the authority of MSS. and quota­tions in Stobaeus. To judge from the pieces which are extant, Moschus was capable of writing with elegance and liveliness; but he is inferior to Bion, and comes still farther behind Theocritus. His style labours under an excess of polish and ornament. The idyls of Moschus have been usually edited with those of Bion. The editions are too many to be enumerated; for the best the reader is referred to bion. The poems of Moschus have been frequently translated and imitated in English, German, French, Italian, Hungarian, and Russian. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 805, &c.)

2. See mochus.

3. A writer on mechanics, mentioned by Athe-naeus (xiv. p. 634, b).

4. A grammarian, apparently, the author of a work entitled 'Ej-tfyyo'is 'PodtaKwv Ae|e«z/, men­tioned by Athenaeus (xi. p. 485, e). [C. P. M.]

MOSCHUS, JOANNES, or, as Photius calls him, joannes the son of moschus, surnamed EuKparas, or, what appears to be a corruption of that, Eviratus, was first a monk in the monastery of St. Theodosius at Jerusalem, afterwards lived among the anchorites in the desert on the banks of the Jordan, and subsequently filled the office of

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