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On this page: Mezetulus – Mfcciades – Miccion – Mich Ael Ii – Michael I

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the siege of Ascanius, Mezentius, when he was asked to conclude a peace, demanded among other things, that the Latins should give up to him every year the whole produce of their vintage; and in commemoration of this, it was said, the Romans in later times celebrated the festival of the Vinalia, on the twenty-third of April, when the new wine was tasted, and a libation made in front of the temple of Venus, and a sacrifice offered to Jupiter. (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 45 ; Ov. Fast. iv. 881, &c.; Macrob. Sat. iii. 5 ; comp. Diet, of Ant. s. v. Vmalia.) [L. S.]

MEZETULUS, a Numidian, who, after the death of Oesalces, king of the Massylians, revolted against Capusa, the eldest son of the late king, who had succeeded him on the throne ; and defeated him in a great battle, in which Capusa himself was killed. Mezetulus, however, did not assume the sovereignty himself, but placed on the throne La-cumaces, the youngest son of Oesalus, a- mere child, in whose name he designed to govern the kingdom. But the return of Masinissa from Spain disconcerted his plans: he quickly raised a large army, with which he opposed this new adversary in the field, but was defeated, and compelled to seek refuge in the dominions of Syphax. From thence, however, he was induced to return, and take up his residence at the court of Masinissa, from whom he received a free pardon and the restitution of all his property. (Liv. xxix. 29, 30.) It is probably the same person who is called by Appian Mesotulus (Meo^Tt/Aos), and is mentioned as joining Han­nibal with a force of 1000 horsemen shortly before the battle of Zama. (Appian, Pun. 33.) [E.H.B.]

MFCCIADES, a sculptor of Chios, was the son of Malas, the father of Anthermus (or Archennus), and the grandfather of Bupalus and Athenis. He must have flourished about OL 42 or 45. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 2.) [R S.J

MICCION (MitcKi<av)> a painter mentioned by Lucian as a disciple of Zeuxis. (Luc. Zeux. 7. vol. i. p. 845, Wetst.) [P. S.]

MICHAEL I. RHANGA'BE, or RHAGA'BE ,(M/xcn}A. 6 'PavydGii) or tPaya€lt)9 emperor of Con­stantinople from a. d. 811 to 813, was the son of Theophylactus, one of the high functionaries who, together with Stauracius, conspired against the em­peror Constantine VI., and the grandson of one Rhangabe, from whom he derived his surname. Michael was at once honest, handsome, and gifted with many talents, but he was of a weak character, and his amiability could not always efface the un­favourable impression which his want of energy made upon persons of stouter hearts than his. He stood in great favour with the emperor Nicephorus I. (802—811), who, by creating him master of the palace, raised him to the highest rank in the empire after the emperor and .his family, and finally gave him his daughter Procopia in marriage. Stauracius, however, the son and successor of Nicephorus, was far from sharing the sentiments of his father towards the master of the palace, and feeling himself dying from the effects of a wound, received some months previously on the battle-field where his father was slain by the Bulgarians, he gave orders to blind Michael, in order that his wife Theophano, to whom he intended to bequeath the throne, might find no obstacles at her succession. One Stephanus was charged with executing the emperor's order. He wisely refrained from doing so, and informed Michael of it. They immediately assembled the

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MICHAEL.

chief officers of the state, and being all willing to support Michael, they proclaimed him emperor while Stauracius was still alive (2nd of October, 811). The dying emperor implored and obtained, mercy from his brother-in-law, and went to expire in a convent. The accession of Michael caused great joy among the people, though little in the army: the soldiers, however, were soon satisfied by the liberal use which the new emperor made of the rich treasures hoarded up by the late Nicephorus. Michael, a peaceful man, began his reign by re^- storing peace to the disturbed church, and recalling from exile Leo Armenus, a celebrated general, who now enjoyed the emperor's full confidence, for which he afterwards rewarded him by hurling his bene­ factor from his throne. In the spring of 812, Crum, the king of the Bulgarians, again invaded the territories of the empire. Michael set out at the head of his army to meet him, but committed the imprudence of allowing the empress Procopia to accompany him. A general discontent and symptoms of sedition among the troops were the con­ sequences of his thoughtlessness ; a woman with more than seeming authority in the camp being then an unheard of thing. Distrusting the army, the emperor hastened back to the capital, followed by a host of reckless barbarians who laid the country waste with fire and sword. At their ap­ proach, multitudes of people, mostly iconoclasts^ fled before them ; and a sedition in consequence broke out among the numerous iconoclasts in Con­ stantinople, which was quelled, not without diffi­ culty, by Leo Armenus: their leader Nicolaus was confined in a convent ; and they were finally all driven out of the city and dispersed in the pro­ vinces, by order of the emperor. About the same time great numbers of Christians of all sects took refuge within the empire, flying from the dominions of the khalifs, which were then filled with com­ motion and civil wars. Crum, meanwhile, pursued his victorious course, and laid siege to Mesembria, whereupon he made offers of peace, which, on account of their moderation, the emperor was in­ clined to accept, but his councillors were for further resistance. Mesembria was now taken by assault, and the danger from the Bulgarians grew daily more alarming. In February 813, Michael once more set out to meet them, again accompanied by his wife Procopia. Her presence in the camp had the same consequences as before. Leo Armenus secretly fomented the discontent of the troops, and carried on those intrigues which led to the loss of the battle of Adrianople (22d of June, 813), the flight of Michael to Constantinople, and his de­ position by the successful rebel, as is related in the life of leo V. The deposed Michael retired into a convent, where he led an obscure, but quiet and happy life, during more than thirty years. Leo succeeded him on the throne. (Cedren. p. 48, &c.; Zonar. vol. ii. p. 125, &c.; Const. Manass. pi 94 ; Theoph. Contin. p. 8 ; Author, incert, post Theoph., p. 428, &c.; Glycas, p. 286 ; Joel, p. 178 ; Ge~ nesius, p. 2, &c.; Leo Gram, p* 445, &e.; Symeon Metaphrastes, p. 402.) [W. P.]

MICH AEL II. BALBUS (Mixa^ 6 Tpav\6s)9 or the " stammerer," emperor of Constantinoplej a. d. 820-—829. This prince was of low origin; he was born at Amorium, and spent his earlier youth as a groom, in different stables of his native townk He afterwards entered the army, and although he was ignorant and illiterate, he met with success iu

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