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capital charge of having attempted to prevail on the Romans to sever Sparta from the league ; and Menalcidas only escaped the danger through the protection of Diaeus, which he purchased with a bribe of three talents. [callicrates, No. 4.] In b. c. 149 he supported at Rome, against Diaeus, the cause of the Lacedaemonian exiles. [diaeus.] In b. c. 147, when the war between the Achaeans and Lacedaemonians had been suspended at the command of Caecilius Metellus, he persuaded his countrymen to break the truce, and seized and plundered lasus, a subject town of the Achaeans on the borders of Laconia. The Lacedaemonians, soon repenting of their rashness, were loud in their outcry against their adviser; and .he, driven to despair, put an end to his own life by poison, "having shown himself," says Pausanias, "as leader of the Lacedaemonians at that time, the most unskilful general; as leader of the Achaeans formerly, the most unjust of men." (Polyb. xl. 5 ; Paus. vii. 11, 12,13, 16.) [E.E.]
MENALIPPUS (Mevd\iinros9 an equivalent form to MeAcSwirTroy), an architect, probably of Athens, who, in conjunction with the Roman architects, C. and M. Stallius, was employed by Ariobarzanes II. (Philopator), king of Cappadocia, to restore the Odeum of Pericles, which had been burnt in the Mithridatic war, in 01. 173, 3,b.c. 86-5. The exact ,date of the restoration is un known ; but Ariobarzanes reigned from b. c. 63 to about b. c. 51. (Bb'ckh, Corp. Insc. vol. i. No. 357 ; Vitruv. v. 9. 1.) [P. S.]
MENANDER (MeVewfyos), an Athenian officer In the Syracusan expedition, was, together with Euthydemus, associated in the supreme command with Nicias, towards the end of the year b. cu 414. The operations of Menander and his colleague Euthydemus are narrated in the life of the latter. '[Vol. II. p, 123, b.] (Thuc. vii. 16, 43, 69 ; Diod. xiii. 13 ; Plut. Nicias, c. 20.) It appears to have been this same Menander whom we find serving under Alcibiades in the campaign against Pharna-bazus, in the winter of b. c. 409—408 (Xen. Hell. i. 2. § 16), and probably the same who was appointed, with Tydeus and Cephisodotus in b. c. 405, to share the command of the Athenian fleet with the generals who had been previously appointed—Conon, Philocles, and Adeimantus. He was therefore one of the commanders at the disastrous battle of Aegos-potami; and he and Tydeus are especially mentioned as rejecting with contempt the advice of Alcibiades before the battle. (Id. ii. 1. §§ 16, 26.)
MENANDER (Mera*>6>os). 1. An bfficer in the service of Alexander, one of those called crcupot, but who held the command of a body of mercenaries. He was appointed by Alexander, during the settlement of the affairs of Asia made by that monarch when at Tyre (b.c. 331), to the government of Lydia, and appears to have remained at that post till the year 323, when he was commissioned to conduct a reinforcement of troops to Alexander at Babylon, where he arrived just before the king's last illness. (Arrian, Anab. iii. 6. § 12, vii. 23. § 2.) In the division of the provinces, after the death of Alexander, he received his former government of Lydia, of which he hastened to take possession. (Arrian, ap. Phot. p. 69, b.; Dexippus, ibid. p. 64, a.; Justin. xiii. 4; Curt. x. 30. § 2 ; Diod. xviii. 3, erroneously has Mdeager instead.)
He appears to have early attached himself to the party of Antigonus, to whom he was the first to give information of the ambitious schemes of Per-diccas for marrying Cleopatra. (Arrian, ap. Phot. p. 70, b.) In the new distribution of the provinces at Triparadeisus he lost his government of Lydia, which was given to Cleitus (Id. p. 72, a.); but this was probably only in order that he might cooperate the more freely with Antigonus, as we find him commanding a part of the army of the latter in the first campaign against Eumenes (b. c. 320). The following year, on learning the escape of* Eumenes •from Nora, he advanced with an army into Cappadocia to attack him, and compelled him to take refuge in Cilicia. (Plut. Eum. 9 ; Diod. xviii. 59.) From this time no farther mention of Menander is found in history.
3. A native of Laodiceia, who was a general of cavalry in the service of Mithridates, and figures on several occasions in the wars of that monarch. He was one of those selected to command the army under the king's son, Mithridates, which was op posed to Fimbria, b. c. 85 (Memnon, c. 34) ; and again in the operations against Lucullus, near Cabeira, he commanded a detachment of the army of Mithridates, which was destined to cut off a convoy of provisions guarded by Sornatius, but was defeated by that general with heavy loss, (Plut. Luoull. 17.) He afterwards fell a prisoner into the hands of Pompey, and was one of the cap tives who served to adorn his triumph. (App. Mifftr. 117.) [E. H. B.]
MENANDER (MeVavfyos), king of bactria, was, according to Strabo (xi. 11), one of the most powerful of all the Greek rulers of that country, and one of those who made the most extensive conquests in India. Plutarch tells us that his rule was mild and equitable, and that he was so popular with his subjects, that the different cities under his authority, after vying with each other in paying him funeral honours, insisted upon dividing his remains among them. (De Rep. Ger. p. 821.) Both these authors term him king of Bactria ; but recent inquirers are of opinion that he did not reign in Bactria Proper, but only in the provinces south of the Paropamisus, or Indian Caucasus. (Lassen, Gesch. d. Bactr. Kon. p. 225, &c.; Wilson's Ariana, p. 282.) According to Strabo (I. c.), he extended his conquests beyond the Hypanis or Sutlej, and made himself master of the district of Pattalene at the mouths of the Indus. These con quests appear to have been related by Trogus Pompeius in his forty-first book (see Prol. Lib. xli.), but they are omitted by Justin. The author of the Periplus of the Erythraean sea, commonly ascribed to Arrian, tells us (p. 27, ed. Huds.) that silver coins of Menander and Apollodotua were still in circulation in his day among the mer chants of Barygaza (Baroach) ; and they have been discovered in modern times in considerable numbers in the countries south of the Hindoo Koosh, and even as far east as the Jumna. (Wilson, p. 281.) The period of his reign is wholly uncertain. [E. H. B.]