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•1006 MAXIMUS.

made himself master of the Roman portion of Spain ; but this rebellion was a trifling affair, and he perhaps only got possession of some small dis­ trict. Failing in his enterprise he was seized, carried to Italy, and, in 422, put to death at Ravenna together with Jovinus. [gerontius.] (Sozoni. ix. 12—15 ; Orosius, vii. 42, 43 ; Olym- piodorus apud Phot. Biblioth. cod. 80 ; Greg. Turon. 1. il c. 9 ; Prosper, Marcellinus, Idatius, Chronica.) [W. P.]

MAXIMUS TYRIUS, a native of Tyre, a Greek writer of the age of the Antonines, was rather later, therefore, than Maximus the Rhetori­cian, mentioned by Plutarch (Symp. ix. probl. 4), and rather earlier than the Maximus mentioned by Porphyry (apud Euseb. Evang. Praep. x. 3) as having been present at the supper given by Longi-nus at Athens in honour of Plato. It is disputed whether Maximus of Tyre was one of the tutors of the emperor Aurelius. The text of the Chronicon of Eusebius, in which he is mentioned, being lost, we have to choose between the interpretation of his translator Jerome, according to whom Maximus is not mentioned as tutor to the emperor, and the reading of Georgius Syncellus [georgius, No. 46], who appears to have transcribed Eusebius, and ac­cording to whom Maximus held that office in con­junction with Apollonius of Chalcedon [apollo­nius, No. 11], and Basileides of Scythopolis [basileides, No. 2.J.- Even if we accept the reading of Syncellus, as representing the genuine text of Eusebius, it is not improbable that the state­ment may have arisen from the latter confounding Claudius Maximus, the Stoic, with Maximus of Tyre. Tillemont contends earnestly (Hist, des EmpereurS) vol. ii. p. 550, note 11, sur VEmp. Tite Antonin.} for the identity of the two persons, fol­lowing in this the judgment of Jos. Scaliger, Jac. Gappellus, Dan, Heinsius, and Barthius. Accord­ing to Suidas (s. v. Ma£mo9 Tifptos) Maxiraus re­sided at Rome in the time of the emperor Commo-duSj and the title of: the MS. of the Dissertdtiones Maximi, in the King's Library at Paris, used by Heinsius, Mce£tjuov Tvpiou H\aro>ViKov <j)t\off6<f)ov t&v €V 'PctyM? StaA.e|«cov rrjs Trpcarrjs eTriStyjiuas \6yoi /*a', Maximi Tyrii Platonici Pkilosophi Dis-sertationum Romae^ quum ibiprimo versaretur, com-positarum^ &c., gives reason to believe that he re­sided there at least twice. Davis, indeed, disputes this, and conjectures from intimations contained in the work itself that only a few of the dissertations (five or perhaps seven) were written at Rome, that others were written in Greece, in which country he thinks Maximus passed a longer period of his life than at Rome. Certainly, while his works con­tain abundant allusions to Grecian history, there is scarcely a single reference to that of Rome. . In one passage (Dissert, viji., 8), Maximus states that he had seen the sacred rivers Marsyas and Maean-der at Celaenae in Phrygia. He probably also had visited Paphos, in the isle of Cyprus, Mount Olympus, in Asia Minor, and perhaps Aetna, in Sicily, with which he contrasts Olympus ; and as he had seen also the quadrangular stone which the Arabs worshipped as an image or emblem of their deity, it is most likely that he had been in Arabia. (Maxim.. Dissert, ibid.) But he does not appear to have resided in these places, but only to have visited them in the course of his travels, which must have been extensive. The time of his death W not known.


The title of his only extant work is variously given as AtaAe^eis, jDissertationes, or Aoyoi, Ser-mones. It consists of forty-one dissertations on theological, ethical, and other philosophical sub­jects. Heinsius thinks that the author arranged them in ten Tetralogia, or sets of four each, ac­cording to the subjects ; and in one of his notes, he conjecturally gives what he regards as their correct order. The Dissertatio "On irpbs irciffav v-jr6Qs(nv dp/J.6(r€Tai 6 tov <£>iA.ocrJ$ou \6yos, Omni subjecto philosophiam convenire, he considers to have been the proem or introduction to the whole work. The work was first printed in the Latin version of Cosmus Paccius, archbishop of Florence, made from a MS. of the original which Janus Lascaris had brought from Greece into Italy to Lorenzo de' Me-s dici. This version was published fol. Rome, 1517, by Petrus Paccius, the translator's brother : again, fioL Basil. 1519, and in a smaller form at Paris, 1554. The Greek text was first printed by Hen. Stephanus, 8vo. Paris, 1557, accompanied, but in "a separate volume, by the version of Paccius. The edition of Heinsius, from a MS. in the King's Library at Paris (with the title quoted above), with a new Latin version and notes by the editor, was printed 8vo. Leyden, 1607 and again 1614, and without the notes, A. d. 1630. It has been re­printed once or twice since then. In the first edi^ tion the Latin version and the notes formed separate volumes. Heinsius did not follow either the ar­rangement of his MS. or his own suggested arrange­ment in Tetralogia. The first edition of Davis, fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge, with the version of Heinsius, whose arrangement he adopted, and short notes, was published, 8vo. Cambridge, 1703 ; the second and more important edition, in which the text was carefully revised and a different arrangement of the Dissertationes was adopted, was published after the editor's death by Dr. John Ward, the Gresham professor, with valuable notes, by Jeremiah Markland, 4to. London, 1740. This second edition of Davis was reprinted with some corrections and additional notes by Jo. Jac. Reiske, 2 vols. 8vo. Lips. 1774—5. The works 'Ofjuftpov Kal ris tj nap"* avT$ d/>%aia De Homero et quae sit apud eum antiqua Philoso-phia, and El Ka\£s SuKpdvris ovk dirGhoytfcraTo, Rectefte Socrates fecerit, quod accusatus nan respon­dent^ mentioned by Suidas (I. c.), appear to be two of the Dissertationes., Nos. 16 and 39, in the edi­tions of Heinsius and first of Davis, and Nos. 32 and 9 in DaVis's second and Reiske's editions. Some SvJiolia in Cratylum Platonis, by Maximus of Tyre, were formerly extant in the Palatine Library. Fed. Morellus conjectured, but on in­sufficient grounds, that Maximus was the Tyrian sophist mentioned by Libanius (Orat. xix. pro Saltatoribus} as having written an 'Evrd<fnos Aoyoy, Oratio Funebris^ for the Trojan Paris.

The merits of Maximus of Tyre have been va­riously estimated. Reiske, who undertook the charge of the Leipzig edition, at the request of the bookseller, when worn down by increasing years and long literary labours, especially in editing Plutarch, speaks of Maximus as a tedious, affected writer, who degraded the most elevated and im­portant subjects by his trivial and puerile mode of treating them. But Markland, while admitting and blaming the haste and inaccuracy of Maximus, praises his acuteness, ability, and learning. He thinks that Maximus published two editions of hia

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