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iminus I., upon whose accession he became Caesar and Princeps Juventutis ; and having accompanied the emperor in the campaigns against the barbarians, he was subsequently styled Germanicus, SarmaticuS) and Dacicus. It does not appear probable, however, that he was invested with the tribunician power or with the consulship, or that he was ever formally associated in the imperial dignity with the title of Augustus^ although such legends as victoria augustorum and maximinus et maximus . augusti . gbrmanici, are found upon medals. He was murdered, along with his father, by the troops while besieging Aquileia, a. d. 238, at the age of eighteen, or, according to other authorities, twenty-one. From coins and inscriptions we are enabled to pronounce with certainty that his name was Maximus, and not Maximinus^ as Capitolinus would lead us to suppose.
This youth was equally celebrated for the sur passing beauty of his person, the elaborate finish of his dress, and :the excessive haughtiness of his demeanour. He was, however, educated with much care, was well acquainted with Greek and Latin literature, and seems in many respects to have had a good disposition. It is said that Alex ander had at one time some thoughts of bestowing his sister, Theoclia, upon Maximus in marriage ; and at a later period he was betrothed to Junia Fadilla, a great-grand-daughter of Antoninus. (Capitolinus, Maacimin. jun. ; Eckhel, vol. vii. p; 291, 297 ; maximinus I.) [W. R.]
COIN OF MAXIMUS CAESAR.
MAXIMUS, CAESO'NIUS, was banished from Italy by Nero on the detection of Piso's conspiracy in a. d. 66. (Tac. Ann. xv. 72.) From an epigram of Martial (vii. 44), addressed to one Q. Ovidius, a friend of Caesonius Maximus, we learn that Maximus had been consul, and also that he was one of the friends of Seneca, which was no doubt the cause of his punishment.
MAXIMUS, CARVI'LIUS. 1. sp. carvi-lius C. f. C. n. maximus, was curule aedile b.c. 299, and consul u. c. 293, with L. Papirius Cursor. Their consulship was distinguished by brilliant victories over the Samnites, who had made immense exertions to ensure success, and had penetrated into Campania. Carvilius first took Amiternum, and then proceeded to assault Comiriium, while his colleague engaged with the great Sanmite army, the soldiers of which had devoted themselves to conquest or death by the most solemn vows. After Papirius had gained a brilliant victory over this army, Carvilius took Cominium, and then proceeded to attack Palumbinum and Herculaneum, both of which fell into his hands, although he had previously suffered a defeat from the Samnites near the latter town. After this Carvilius was called away into Etruria, where the Faliscans had broken the peace. Here, too, he was successful; he took the town of Troilium and five other fortified places, defeated the enemy and granted peace to the Fa-
liscans on the payment of a large sum of money On his return to Rome he celebrated a splendid triumph—according to Livy, over the Samnites and Etruscans, and after the triumph of Papirius ; according to the Triumphal Fasti, over the Samnites alone, and a month before the triumph of his colleague. Carvilius acquired great popularity by distributing a large part of the booty among the soldiers, which his colleague had not done ; but even after this distribution he paid into the treasury 380,000 pounds of Jbronze, and applied the remainder to the erection of a temple of Fors For-tuna. With the bronze armour taken from the Samnites he made a colossal statue of Jupiter upon the Capitol, which was of such a height that it could be seen from the temple on the-Alban Mount; and with the bronze which fell off in polishing this work he had his own statue cast, which was placed at the feet of the colossus. (Liv. x* 9, 39, 43^—45, 46 ; Zonar. viii. 1 ; Plin. H.N. xxxiv. 7, s. 18 ; Niebuhr, Hist, of Home, vol. iii. p. 392, &c.) In the year after his consulship Carvilius was appointed legate to the consul D. Junius Brutus, as the consuls of that year did not possess military experience* and had been elected in expectation of a state of peace. (Zonar. I.e.)
In b. c. 272, Carvilius was elected consul a second time with his former colleague L. Papirius Cursor, as the people, recollecting their former victories, fully hoped that they would put an end to the Samnite war before Pyrrhus could return again to Italy. They did not disappoint the expectations of the people, though of the details of the war we have no information. They conquered the Samnites, Lucanians, Bruttians, and Tarentines, and celebrated a triumph on account of their victories. (Fasti Capit. ; Zonar. viii. 6; Liv. Epit. 14; Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome vol. iii. p. 524.) It must be of this Sp. Carvilius that Velleius Paterculus (iii 128) relates, that, though born of equestrian rank, he arrived at the highest honours of the state, and not of the consul of b. c. 234 [No. 2], as Orelli supposes (Onom. Tull. vol. ii. p. 133).
2. sp. carvilius, sp. f. C. n. maximus ruga, son of No. 1, was consul, b. c. 234, with L. Pos-tumius Albjnus, and carried on war first against the Corsicans and then against the Sardinians: according to the Fasti Capitolini he obtained a triumph over the latter people. (Zonar. viii. 18.) He was consul a second time in b. c. 228 with Q. Fabius Maximus Verracbssus, in which year, according to Cicero (Cato, 4), he did not resist, like his col*-league, the agrarian law of the tribune C. Flamr-nius for the division of the lands in Cisalpine Gaul. Polybius (ii. 21), however, places the agrarian law of C. Flaminius four years earlier, in the consulship of M. Aemilius Lepidus, b. c. 232.
Carvilius is not mentioned again till the year of the fatal battle of Cannae, b. c. 216, when he pn*-posed, in order to fill up the numbers of the senate and to unite the Latin allies more closely to the Romans in this their season of adversity, that the vacancies in the senate should be supplied by electing two senators from each one of the Latin tribes, but his proposition was rejected with the utmost indignation and contempt. He died in b. c. 212, at which time he was augur. (Liv. xxiii. 22, xxvi. 23.)
Carvilius is related to have been the first person who divorced his wife, which he is said to have done on the ground of barrenness, but his conduct