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medals, appear quite irresistible. From these it appears certain that the death of Alexander Severus happened not later than the beginning of July, a. d. 235 ; that Maximimis betook himself to Sir-mium, after his successful campaign against the Germans, towards the close of a. d. 237 ; that the elevation of the Gordians in Africa took place about the commencement of March, A. d. 238, and their death about six weeks afterwards ; that Maxi-minus set out upon his march for Rome early in April, sat down before Aquileia towards the end of the month, and was slain, in all probability about the middle of May.

The names C. Julius Verus^ together with the titles Dacicus Maocimus and Sarmaticus Maodmus, appear in inscriptions only ; medals at first exhibit the simple Maximinus, to which Germanicus is added in those struck during A. d. 236, and the following years. (Capitolin. Maximin. duo ; Hero-dian. lib. vii. viii.; Zonar. xii. 16.) [alexander severus ; gordianus' ; balbinus ; quarti-nus ; crispinus ; menophilus.] [W. R.J



fought near Heracleia, he fled first to Nicomedeia and thence to Tarsus, where he soon after died according to some accounts of despair, according to others by poison. His wife and children were murdered, and every imaginable insult heaped upon his memory by the conqueror.

The great military talents of Herculius, Galerius, and Licinius, served in-some degree, if not to pal­ liate, at least to divert attention from, their vices and their crimes. But not one quality, either noble or dazzling, relieves the coarse brutality of Maximin, who surpassed all his contemporaries in the profligacy of his private life, in the general cruelty of his administration, and in the furious hatred with which he persecuted the Christians. His elevation, which was the result of family in­ fluence alone, must have been as unexpected by himself as by others ; but he did not prove by any means such a passive and subservient tool as was anticipated. His extravagant vanity, for we can scarcely dignify the feeling by the name of am­ bition, was for a while gratified, because Galerius felt unwilling to engage in a civil war with the creature of his own hands ; but the arrogance en­ gendered by this success in all probability prompted him to the unprovoked aggression which proved his ruin. (Zosim. ii. 8 ; Victor, Epit. 40 ; Oros. vii. 25 ; Auctor. de Mort. Persec. 5, 32, 36, 38, 45, &c.; Euseb. H. E. viii. 14, ix. 2, &c.; Eckhel, vol. viii. p. 51.) [W. R.j


MAXIMINUS II., Roman emperor 305— 314. galerius valerius maximinus, who originally bore the name of daza, was the nephew of Galerius by a sister, and in early life followed the occupation of a shepherd in his native Illyria. Having forsaken this humble calling for the life of a soldier, by force of interest rather than of any conspicuous merit, he rose to the highest rank in the service, and upon the abdication of ^Diocletian at Nicomedeia in a. d. 305 [diocletianus, p. 1013], although altogether undistinguished, and indeed unknown, was adopted by the new emperor of the East, received the title of Jovius, was elevated to the rank of Caesar, and was nominated to the government of Syria and Egypt. Little grateful for these extraordinary and most undeserved marks of favour, he displayed violent indignation upon being passed over in the arrangements which fol­lowed the death of Constantius Chlorus in A. d. 307, when Licinius:was created Augustus. [Li-ciniits; galerius maximianus.] Far from being satisfied by the concession of Galerius, who in­vented the new title of filii Augustorum to super­sede the appellation of Caesars, he assumed without permission the highest imperial designation, and with much difficulty succeeded in wringing a re­luctant acquiescence from his uncle. Upon the death of the latter,.in 311, he entered into a con­vention with Licinius, in terms of which he received the provinces of Asia Minor in addition to his former dominion, the Hellespont and the Bosporus forming the common boundary of the two sove­reignties; but having treacherously taken advantage of the absence of his neighbour, who had repaired to Milan in 313 for the purpose of receiving in marriage the sister of Constantine, he suddenly invaded Thrace, and surprised Byzantium. Having, however, been- signally defeated in a great battle


MAXIMINUS, the excellent ambassador of Theodosius the Younger to Attila in a. d. 448. He was already conspicuous in the Persian war in 422, when he was lieutenant of Ardaburius. Theo­ dosius sent him in 448 to Attila; Orestes and Edicon, the Hunnic ambassadors at Constantinople, returned with him to Pannonia. This Edicon had been bribed by the minister, Chrysaphius, to murder Attila, but on his arrival in Pannonia in­ formed his master of the plot, of which Maximin was totally ignorant. Attila was well aware of this, and consequently turned his resentment only against the emperor and the minister at Constanti­ nople, disdaining even to punish Vigilius, who was the entire promoter of the scheme, aiid who was entrapped in his turn by Attila. This embassy of Maximin is described by his secretary, Priscus, to whom we refer for the interesting details of an event to which we are indebted for nearly all our knowledge of Attila's person and private life. Maximin became afterwards one of the four prin­ cipal ministers of the emperor Marcian ; and in later years held the supreme command in Egypt* whence he made a successful campaign against the Aethiopians. He is invariably represented as a virtuous, firm, and highly talented man. (Priscus, p. 39, 40, 48—70 ; Socrat. Hist. Eccles., vii. 20; priscus.) [W. P.]

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