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MAUftlCIUS.

gard her as a marine divinity. (Plut. CamilL 5; Ov. Fast. vi. 551, &c.; Cic. DeNat. Deor. iii. 19, Tuscul. i. 12.) A temple had been dedicated to Matuta at Rome by king Servius, and was restored by the dictator, Camillas, after the taking of Veii. (Liv. v. 19, 23, xxv. 7, xli. 33.) Frequent men­ tion of a temple of Matuta at Satricum is made by Livy (vi. 33, vii. 27, xxviii. 11). [L. S.]

MAYORS. [mars.]

MAVORTIUS, the name prefixed to a poem in the Latin Anthology on the judgment of Paris. It is a cento from the writings of Virgil, and breaks off abruptly at the end of 42 lines. The author is believed to be the Vettius Agorius BasiLius Ma- vortius, who was consul a. D. 527, the same who, according to Bentley, arranged the works of Horace in their present form, and who is supposed by a recent critic, whose reasonings will not bear close investigation, to have interpolated a number of spurious pieces, and introduced other organic changes. (Burmann, Aniholog. Lot. i. 147, or No. 282, ed. Meyer; Bentley, Praef. in Horat.; Peerl- kamp, Praef. ad Horat.) [W. R.]

MAURICIANUS, JU'NIUS, a Roman jurist, who wrote, according to the Florentine Index, six books, Ad Leges, by which is meant Ad Leg. Juliam et Papiam (Dig. 33. tit. 2. s. 23). The passage just cited shows that he was writing this work in the time of Antoninus Pius (A. d. 138— 161). There is one passage in the Digest from the second book of Mauricianus De Poems (2. tit. 13. s. 3), which work is not mentioned in the Florentine Index. He also wrote notes on Julianus (2. tit. 14. s. 7. § 2 ; 7. tit. 1. s. 25. § 1), but in place of Mau­ricianus some manuscripts have Martianus or Mar-cianus in the two passages just cited. Mauricianus is sometimes cited by other jurists. There are four excerpts from his writings in the Digest. [G. L.]

MAURITIUS, according to Capitolinus (Gor- dian. tres, c. 7), was the name of the youth who headed the conspiracy in Africa against Maximinus I. [maximinus], and proposed the elevation of the proconsul, Gordian, and his son. [W. R.]

MAURITIUS (Mavpf/cios), FLA'VIUS TI-BE'RIUS, one of the greatest emperors of Con­stantinople (a. d. 582—620), was descended from an ancient Roman family which settled in Asia Minor, perhaps some centuries previous to his birth, which took place about a. d. 539, in the town of Arabissus, in Cappadocia. We give the genealogy of his family so far as it is known:—

i

Paulus, a native of Arabissus ; a man of talent and rank, raised still higher by his son the emperor Maurice; m. Jo­anna ; died 593.

1. Mauricius, 2. Petrus, dux 3. Gordiana, 4. Theo-

" m. Philip- ctista.

pus, or

murdered — — by Phocas

emperor;

b. 5?9;

succeeded

Tiberius 582

murdered

by Phocas

602; m.

Constantina,

eldest

daughter of

Tiberius,

murdered by

Phocas 605 or 607.

Philippicus,

dux Orientis.

d.Damiana.

1. Theodosius 2. Tiberius. 7. Anastasia. 10. Sopa- Augustus, 3. Petrus. 8. Theo- tra.

11. Maria, said to have

ctista.

b. 585 ; m. 4. Paulus. daughter of 5. Justinus. 9. Cleopatra Germanus 6. Justinia- All three

nus?

All five

murdered

by Phocas.

married Hormisdas,

king of

murdered by Phocas.

Patricius; murdered by Phocas 602.

Persia, which

is more

than

doubtful.

MAURICIUS.

Maurice spent his youth at the court of the em­peror Justin II.; and although he undoubtedly served also in the army, his name does not become conspicuous in history previous to 578. At that period he was comes cubiculorum ; and Tiberius had no sooner succeeded Justin (578) than he ap­pointed Maurice magister militum, and gave him the command in Mesopotamia against the Persians, in place of the general Justinian, with whose military conduct the emperor was not satisfied.. As Tiberius was considered to be the greatest captain of his time, he would not have entrusted so important a command to an inexperienced courtier, and consequently one cannot but infer that he was perfectly acquainted with the great capabilities of Maurice. The event fully justified the emperor's choice. A truce of three years had been made be­tween Persia and the empire, extending to the whole of the frontier except Armenia, where war was carried on as before. But Chosroes violated the truce, and invaded Mesopotamia before the Romans were at all aware of his hostile intentions. At this critical moment Maurice arrived in Meso^-potamia, and forthwith began by restoring the relaxed discipline of the troops: one of his first measures was the re-establishment of the ancient custom of the legions never going to rest at night before fortifying their camp. This custom had long since been neglected ; and the favourite manoeuvre of the Persians of surprising the Romans in the night was thus rendered abortive. At the opening of the campaign, however, the Persian general, Tamchosroes, made- himself master of the im­portant fortress of Thomane, and pushed as far as Amida. Maurice soon drove him back, and in his turn invaded the province of Arzanene, sending some detachments beyond the Tigris. The first campaign ended without any decisive battle. In the second campaign, 579, Maurice and his excel­lent lieutenant Narses—who must not be con­founded with Narses, the general of Justinian—• made a successful invasion of Media, and took up their winter-quarters in Mesopotamia. In 580 he crossed the Euphrates at Circesium (Circessus or Cercusium), a town situated in the angle made by the Chaboras joining the Euphrates, with a view of marching across the desert upon Ctesiphon. His plan was frustrated through the treachery of some Arab allies, and he found himself unexpectedly compelled to make.head against the main army of the Persians. The contest was sharp, and ended with a total overthrow of the Persians, who eva­cuated whatever places they held in Mesopotamia, and fled in confusion beyond the Euphrates. Now Chosroes offered peace, but Maurice peremptorily demanded the restoration of the great fortress of Dara, the bulwark of the empire, declining to ac­cept any indemnity in money, and the war was renewed with more fury than before (581). A pitched battle, in which the Persian army was almost annihilated, and their commander, Tam­chosroes, died the death of a hero, concluded the war, to the advantage of the Romans, and Maurice hastened to Constantinople to surprise the emperor and the nation with the welcome news that the most dangerous enemy of Greece was humbled, and peace restored to the East. This was more than what even Tiberius expected ; and Maurice having gained universal popularity by his brilliant victories, the emperor invited him to enter Con­stantinople in triumph (582).

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