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soldiers to the execution of Gisco and all the other Carthaginian captives. Not only was this sanguinary resolution carried out, with circumstances of the utmost barbarity, but the rebels refused to give up the dead bodies, and even threatened to treat in like manner any Carthaginian heralds who should for the future be sent to them. These atrocities quickly led to sanguinary measures of retaliation on the part of the Carthaginian generals, and the war was henceforth marked by a character of ferocity unparalleled in the whole course of ancient history.
Meanwhile, the dissensions between the Car thaginian generals Hamilcar and Hanno prevented their carrying on any effectual operations against the insurgents, and the latter soon after obtained an important accession to their cause in the two powerful cities of Utica and Hippo, which at length abandoned the alliance of the Carthaginians, mur dered the garrisons that occupied them, and opened their gates to the rebels. Thus strengthened, Matho and Spendius now ventured to lay siege to Carthage itself; but while they cut oif the city from all communications on the land side, they were themselves threatened from without by the army of Hamilcar, who by means of his Numidian horse was now completely master of the open country, and so effectually intercepted their sup plies, that they were finally compelled to raise the siege. Not long afterwards Spendius, who had again attempted to oppose Hamilcar in the field, with an army of 50,000 men, was compelled by the superior skill and generalship of his opponent to surrender, and was himself made prisoner, while almost the whole of his army was put to the sword. This catastrophe was followed by the sub mission of most of the revolted cities, and Matho, with the remainder of his forces, took refuge in Tunis, where he was closely besieged by Hamilcar on the one side and his new colleague Hannibal on the other. But the negligence of the latter soon afforded Matho an opportunity of surprising his camp, which he took,. with great slaughter, carrying off an immense booty, and Hannibal him self as a prisoner, whom he immediately caused to be crucified, in revenge for the like cruelty inflicted upon Spendius. This blow compelled Hamilcar to raise the siege of Tunis, but it was the last success obtained by the rebels: a reconciliation being brought about between the two Carthaginian ge nerals, they again took the field in concert, and Matho, after several partial actions, in which he was for the most part worsted, was at length driven to risk a general battle, and was totally defeated. The greater part of his troops fell on the field, and he himself was made prisoner, and carried in tri umph to Carthage, where he was shortly after put to death with every species of indignity. (Polyb. i. 69—88 ; Diod. xxv. Exc. Hoesch. pp. 509, 510, Exc. Vales, pp. 566, 567, Exc. Vat. pp. 55, 56; Appian, Pun. 5.) . [E. H. B.]
MATHO, a family name of the Naevian and Pomponian gentes, was always pronounced without the aspirate, Mato9 as we learn from the authority of Cicero. (Orat. 48.) Sometimes indeed the name was written in that way.
MATHO, a pompous, blustering advocate, ridiculed by Juvenal and Martial. . To see such a man stretched out at full length in a new lectica for which he had probably not paid, excited the indignation of the satirist :—~
" Nam quis iniquae
Tarn patiens urbis, tarn ferreus, ut teneat se, Causidici nova quum veniat lectica Mathonis, Plena ipso?"
(Juv. i. 30, &c., comp. vii. 129, Matho deficit, which refers to his refusing to pay his debts, not to his being poor, as Ruperti interprets it; xi. 34, where he is called bucca; Martial, iv. 80, vii. 10. 3, 4, viii. 42, x. 46, xi. 68.)
MATHO, Q. NAE'VIUS, praetor b.c. 184, received the province of Sardinia, and also the commission to inquire into all cases of poisoning. He was engaged in this investigation for four months before he set out for his province, prosecuting his inquiries in the various municipia and conciliabula in Italy ; and if we may believe Valerius Antias, he condemned two thousand persons in this time. (Liv. xxxix. 32, 38, 41.)
MATHO, POMPO'NIUS. 1. M\ pompo-nius, M'. f. M'. n. matho, consul b. c. 233, with Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucossus, carried on war against the Sardinians, and obtained a triumph in consequence of his victory over them. (Zonar. viii. 18, p. 401.) The reduction of the Sardinians, however, must have been incomplete, as we find Matho's brother engaged against them two years afterwards, with a consular army. [See below, No. 2.] In b. c. 217 he was magister equitum to the dictator, L. "Veturius Philo, and was elected praetor for the following year, b.c. 216. There seems no reason for believing that the M'. Pom-ponius Matho, praetor of this year, was a different person from the consul of b. c. 233, as the Romans were now at war with Hannibal, and were therefore anxious to appoint to the great offices of the state generals who had had experience in war. The lot, however, did not give to Matho any military command, but the jurisdictio inter ewes Romanos et peregrines. After news had been received of the fatal battle of Cannae, Matho and his colleague, the praetor urbanus, summoned the senate to the curia Hostilia to deliberate on what steps were to be taken. (Liv. xxii. 33, 35, 55, xxiii. 20, 24.) At the expiration of his office, Matho received as propraetor the province of Cisalpine Gaul, b. c. 215 ; for Livy says (xxiv. 10), in the next year, b. c. 214, that the province of Gaul was continued to him. Livy, however, not only makes no mention of Matho's appointment in b. c. 215, but expressly states (xxiii. 25) that in that year no army was sent into Gaul on account of the want of soldiers. We can only reconcile these statements by supposing that Matho was appointed to the province but did not obtain any troops that year. He died in b. c. 211, at which time he was one of the pontifices. (Liv. xxvi. 23.)
2. M. pomponius M'. f. M'. n. matho, brother of the preceding, consul B. c. 231 with C. Papi-rius Maso, was also engaged in war against the Sardinians, and employed dogs which he procured from Italy to hunt out the inhabitants, who had taken refuge in woods and caves. (Zonar. viii. 18, p. 401.) For the same reasons which have been mentioned above, in the case of his brother, we believe that he is the same as the M. Pomponius, who, Livy tells us (xxii. 7), was praetor in b. c. 217, the second year of the war with Hannibal. Maso died in b. c. 204, at which time he was both augur and decemvir sacrorum. (Liv. xxix. 38.)
3. matho, M. pomponius, probably son of No. 2. plebeian aedile b. c. 206, gave, with his colleague