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far beyond his true merits. He possessed indeed unconquerable energy and fortitude, with the promptness of decision and fertility of resource exhibited by so many semi-barbarian chiefs; but though his Carthaginian education seems to have given him a degree of polish beyond that of his countrymen in general, his character was still that of a true barbarian. He was faithless to the Car­thaginians as soon as fortune began to turn against them ; and though he afterwards continued steady to the cause of the Romans, it was because he found it uniformly nis interest to do so. His attachment to them was never tried, like that of Hieron, by adversity ; and the moment he began to think their farther progress inconsistent with his own schemes his fidelity began to waver. A very just view of his character will be found in Niebuhr (Led. on Rom. Hist. vol. i. pp. 216, 217, 291—292.)

Masinissa was the father of a very numerous family; some authors even state that he had as many as fifty-four sons, the youngest of whom was born only four years before his death. Many of these, however, were the offspring of concubines, and not considered legitimate according to the Numidian laws. It appears that three only of his legitimate sons survived him, Micipsa, Mastanabal, and Gulussa. Between these three the kingdom, or rather the royal authority, was portioned out by Scipio, according to the dying directions of the old king. (Appian, Pun. 105 ; Zonar. ix. 27 ; Liv. Epit. 1.; Oros. iv. 22 ; Sail. Jug. 5 ; Val. Max. v. 2, ejct. 4.) Besides these the names of masgaba and misagenes are mentioned in history, and are given under their respective names. [E. H. B.]

MASPSTIUS or MACI'STIUS (Macrfo-nos, Ma/aa-Tios), a Persian, of fine and commanding presence, was leader of the cavalry in the army which Xerxes left behind in Greece under mar- donius. When the Persian force, having entered Boeotia, was drawn up on the right bank of the Asopus, with the Greeks opposite them along the skirts of Cithaeron, Mardonius, having waited im­ patiently and to no purpose for the enemy to de-r scend and fight him in the plain, sent Masistius and the cavalry against them. In the combat which ensued, the horse of Masistius, being wounded in the side with an arrow, reared and threw him. The Athenians rushed upon him im­ mediately, but he was cased in complete armour, which for a time protected him, till at last he was slain by the thrust of a spear in his eye through the visor of his helmet. The Persians tried des­ perately, but in vain, to rescue his body, which was afterwards placed in a cart and led along the Grecian lines, while the men gazed on it with ad­ miration. His countrymen mourned for him as the most illustrious man in the army next to Mardonius. They shaved their own heads, as well as their horses and their beasts of burden, and they raised a wailing, which, according to Hero­ dotus, was heard over the whole of Boeotia. (Herod, ix. 20—25 ; Plut. Arist. 14.) This Masistius seems to have been a different person from the son ,of Siromitres, who commanded the Alarodians and Saspeirians in the army of Xerxes. (Herod, vii. 79.) The breastplate of Masistius was dedicated, as a trophy, in the temple of Athena Polias at Athens. (Paus. i. 27.) [E. E.]

MASO, sometimes written MASSO, the name of a patrician family of the Papiria.gens.


1. L. papirius maso, apparently the first person of this name who obtained any of the offices of the state, was aedile about b.c. 312. From Cicero calling him aedilidus, we learn that he did not obtain any higher dignity. (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 21; comp. Pighius, Ann. vol. i p. 363.)

2. C. papirius, C. p. L. n. maso, consul with M. Pomponius Matho in b. c. 231, carried on war against the Corsicans, whom he subdued, though not without considerable loss. The senate refused him a triumph, and he accordingly celebrated one on the Alban mount. It was the first time that this was ever done, arid the example thus set was frequently followed by subsequent generals, when they considered themselves entitled to a triumph, but were refused the honour by the senate. It is related of Maso, that he always wore a myrtle crown instead of a laurel one, when he was present at the games of the Circus ; and Paulus Diaconus gives as the reason for his doing so, that he con­quered the Corsicans in the "Myrtle Plains," Myrtei Campi. (Zonar. viii. 18. p. 401 ; Fasti Capitol.; Plin. H. N. xv. 29. s. 38; Val. Max. iii. 6. § 5 ; Paul. Diac. p. 144, ed. Miiller.) From the booty obtained in Corsica, Maso dedicated a temple of Fons. (Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 20.) He was one of the pontifices, and died in b. c. 213. (Liv. xxv. 2.) Maso was the maternal grandfather of Scipio Africanus the younger, his daughter Papiria marrying Aemilius Paullus, the conqueror of Macedonia. (Plut. Aemil. Paull. 5 ; Plin. /. c.)

3. C. papirius maso, was, according to some annals, one of the triumviri for founding the colo­nies of Placentia and Cremona, in Cisalpine Gaul, ins. c. 218. (Liv. xxi. 25.) Asconius (in Cic. Pis. p. 3, ed. Orell.) calls him P. Papirius Maso. He may be the same as the consul [No. 2] or the decemvir sacrorum mentioned below. [No. 4.]

4. C. papirius, L. p. maso, one of the decem­viri sacrorum, died in b. c. 213. (Liv. xxv. 2.)

5. L. papirius maso, praetor urbanus b. c. 176* (Liv. xli. 14, 15.) He may have been the L. Papirius, praetor, who is said to have decided, in consequence of the uncertainty of the time of a woman's gestation, that a child born within thir­teen months after copulation could be the heres. (Plin. H. N. vii. 5. s. 4.)

6. M. papirius maso, disinherited his brother (frater), Aelius Ligur, tribune of the plebs b. c;' 57. (Cic. pro Dom. 19, ad Att. v. 4.) This M. Papirius Maso may be the same as the M. Papirius, a Roman knight and a friend of Pompey, who was slain by P. Clodius on the Appian Way. (Cic. pro Mil. 7 ; Ascon. in Cic. Mil. p. 48 ; Schol. Bob. pro Mil. p. 284, ed. Orelli.)

7. C. (papirius) maso, was accused of repe tundae by T. Coponius, of Tibur, and condemned. [CoPONius, No. 1.] ( Ball. 21.)

MASSA, BAE'BIUS, or BE'BIUS, one of the most infamous informers of the latter end of the reign of Domitian, is first mentioned in a. d. 70, as one of the procurators in Africa, when he be­trayed Piso, and is described by the great his­torian as "jam tune optimo cuique exitiosus." (Tac. Hist. iv. 50.) He was afterwards governor of the province of Baetica, which he oppressed so unmercifully, that he was accused by the inhabit­ants on his return to Rome. The cause of the pro­vincials was pleaded by Pliny the younger and Hererinius Seriecio, and Massa was condemned in the same year that Agricola died, a. d. 93 ; but he

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