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MASINISSA.

horse which Hannibal had opposed to him,,and pursuing them for a considerable distance, he returned to the field in time to co-operate with Laelius in the decisive charge that finally broke the main body of the Carthaginian infantry. He was now foremost in the pursuit, and pressed so closely with his Numidian horsemen upon the fugitives, that it is said Hannibal himself with difficulty escaped falling into his hands. (Polyb. xv. 4, 5, 9, 12—15; Liv. xxx. 29, 33—35; Appian, Pun. 37, 41, 44—47.) His zealous co­operation on this occasion was rewarded the fol­lowing year (b. c. 201), on the conclusion of the final peace between Rome and Carthage, when he was not only included in the protection of the treaty as an ally of the former, but obtained from Scipio the possession of Cirta and the greater part of the territories which had belonged to Syphax, in addition to his hereditary dominions, (Polyb. xv. 18 ; Liv. xxx. 44.)

From this time till the commencement of the third Punic war there elapsed an interval of more than fifty years, during the whole of which period Masinissa continued to reign with undisputed au­thority over the countries thus subjected to his rule. Ample as those dominions were, he appears to have already cast a longing eye upon the fertile provinces still retained by his neighbours the Car­thaginians : the certainty of support from the Romans encouraged his covetousness, and the his­tory of this whole period presents nothing but a continued series of aggressions on the part of Masinissa, ineffectual remonstrances on that of the Carthaginians, and embassies repeatedly sent from Rome to adjust their disputes, and nominally to enforce the observance of the treaty and regulations imposed by Scipio ; but these deputies had always secret instructions to favour the cause of the Nu­midian king, and where the injustice of his pre­tensions were too flagrant, they in several instances quitted Africa without coming to any decision at all. The great object of dispute was the fertile district called Emporia, which Masinissa at length proceeded to occupy with an armed force, but this exceeded the limits of even the Roman indulgence, and he was this time compelled to withdraw his troops. (Liv. xxxiv. 62, xl. 17, 34, xlii. 23, 24 ; Appian, Pun. 67—69 ; Polyb. xxxii. 2.) But while thus presuming on the favour of his powerful allies, he was careful to secure a continuance of their support by renewed services ; and we find him assisting them with an auxiliary force of Numidian horse and elephants, as well as with large supplies of corn in their wars with Philip, Antiochus, and Perseus. In the last of these, especially the Numidian auxiliaries, which were commanded by Misagenes, a son of Masinissa, rendered the most important services. (Liv. xxxi. 11, 19, xxxii. 27, xxxvi. 4, xlii. 29, 35, xlv. 13, 14 ; Eutrop. iy. 6 ; Appian, Mac. 9. § 2.)

Meanwhile, Masinissa did not neglect to main­tain a party favourable to his views in Carthage itself. But the reviving prosperity and power of that republic appears to have given increased in­fluence to the party opposed to the Romans and their ally, and at length, in b.c. 150, the principal partisans of Masinissa were driven into exile by the democratic faction. Hereupon the Numidian king at once prepared for war ; but before taking any open steps he sent an embassy to Carthage, at the head of which were his two sons, Gulussa and

MASINISSA.

Micipsa, to demand the restoration of the exiles. But the adverse party at Carthage, at the head of which was Hasdrubal, the general (boetharch) of the republic, refused to admit the ambassadors within the gates of the city, and even attacked them on their return, and slew some of their fol­lowers. Hereupon Masinissa invaded the Car­thaginian territory, and laid siege to the city of Oroscapa. Hasdrubal immediately took the field against him with a considerable army, which was soon swelled by the desertion of some of the Nu­midian chiefs, and by other reinforcements, to the amount of 58,000 men. The first general engage­ment, though favourable to the Numidians, led to no decisive result; and Scipio Aemilianus, who had accidentally arrived at the camp of Masinissa, interposed his good offices to bring about a recon­ciliation between the two parties. These, however, proved of no effect, Masinissa insisting on the surrender of the Numidian deserters, to which the Carthaginians peremptorily refused to accede. Hostilities were consequently renewed, and Ma­sinissa so effectually surrounded the army of Has­drubal, in a position where he was cut off from all supplies, that after the greater part of his troops had perished by famine and pestilence, he was compelled to save the rest by an ignominious ca­pitulation. Even-this was shamefully violated, and many of the Carthaginians were put to the sword while retreating unarmed and defenceless, so that a very small part of their army returned in safety to Carthage. (Appian, Pun. 70—73.)

This blow had effectually humbled the reviving power of Carthage, and the Romans now deter­mined to seize the opportunity of crushing for ever their once formidable rival. The negotiations which ensued, and which ultimately led to the commencement of the third Punic war (b. c. 149), cannot be here related. The part which Masinissa took in them is not distinctly mentioned, but it is clear that he was by no means satisfied that the Romans should take the matter into their own hands; and however much he might wish to see his old enemies the Carthaginians humbled, was far from desiring to see the Romans established in Africa in their stead. Hence when hostilities had actually commenced, and the Romans called on him for assistance, he hesitated, and delayed to send the required auxiliaries. The following year (b.c. 148) the reverses sustained by the Roman armies compelled the senate to send a fresh embassy to Masinissa, with a more urgent demand for re­inforcements, but before the ambassadors arrived at Cirta the aged monarch was no more. (Appian, Pun. 94, 105.) On his deathbed he had sent for Scipio, at that time serving in Africa as a military tribune, but expired before his arrival, leaving it to the young officer to settle the affairs of his kingdom. He died at the advanced age of ninety, having retained in an extraordinary degree his bodily strength and activity to the last, so that in the war against Hasdrubal, only two years before, he not only commanded his army in person, but was able to go through all his military exercises with the agility and vigour of a young man. (Polyb. xxxvii. 3 ; Appian, Pun. 71, 106 ; Liv. Epit. 1.; Eutrop. iv. 11 ; Val. Max. viii. 13, ext. § 1 ; Cic. de Sen. 10 ; Frontin. Strat. iv. 3. § 11 ; Lucian. Macrob. 17 ; Diod. Eucc. Phot. p. 523 ; Pint. Moral, p. 791, f.) His character in other respects has been extolled by the Roman writers

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