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046

MARCUS.

Galland. Biblioth. Patrum. Proleg. ad Vol. V. c.

14.)

9. Of ephesus. [eugenicus, M.]

10. eremita or anachoreta ('Amxwp^Tify, or asceta (6 *A<7K>jT7fc), or monachus (Moj/o-Xos), the monk. Palladius in his Historia Lau-siaca^ c. 21, and, according to the Greek text, as printed in the Biblioth. Patrum (vol. xiii. fol. Paris, 1654) in several passages of c. 20, has recorded some anecdotes, of sufficiently marvellous character, of Marcus, an eminent Egyptian ascetic, who lived to a hundred years, and with whom Palladius had conversed. This Marcus is noticed also fay Sozomen (H. E. vi. 29). Palladius, however, does not ascribe to this Marcus any writings ; nor should he be confounded, as he is even by Cave and Fa-bricius, as well as by others, with Marcus, " the much renowned ascetic," (6 iro\v0pti\\Tr]Tos dtr/cr;-nfc, Niceph. Callist. If. E. xiv. 30, 54), the dis­ciple of Chrysostom, and the contemporary of Nilus and Isidore of Pelusium: for this latter Marcus must have been many years younger than the as­cetic of Palladius. It is to the disciple of Chry­sostom that the works extant, under the name of " Marcus Eremita," are to be ascribed ; as appears from the express testimony of Nicephorus Callisti, who had met with the following works:—eight treatises (Ao7oi oktc£), " equal to the number of the universal passions ;"and thirty-two others, describing the whole discipline of an ascetic life. Other works of Marcus must have been extant at that time, but Nicephorus does not mention them: the above were the only ones that had come into his hands.

The eight treatises appear to have been originally distinct, but had been collected into one volume (fii€\iov)9 and are so described by Photius (Bibl. cod. 200), to whose copy was subjoined a ninth treatise or book, written against the Melchize-dekians (Karot MeAxifcSc/ciTw*/), which showed, says Photius (according to our rendering of a dis­puted passage), that the writer was no less ob­noxious to the charge of heresy than the parties against whom it was written. Photius remarks that the arrangement of the works was different in different copies. A .Latin version by Joannes Picus of. the eight books was published 8vo. Paris, 1563, and has been repeatedly reprinted in the various editions of the Bibliotfteca Patrum. It is in the fifth volume of the edition, Lyon. 1677. The Greek text was also published, 8vo. Paris, 1563, by Guillaume Morel, with the Antirrhetica of Hesychius of Jerusalem. [hesychius, No. 7.] To. the Greek text and the Latin version were re­spectively prefixed, as if also written by Marcus, the text and version of a homily, Tlepl irapaSela-ov Kal vofJLov irvevfj.a'riKov, De Paradiso et Lege Spi­ritual^ which is one of those extant under the name of Macarius the Egyptian [macarius, No. 1], to whom it more probably belongs, and from whose works those of Marcus have been much in­terpolated. The last four works are arranged in a different order from that of Photius ; and to the end of the fifth, which is addressed to one Nicolaus, a friend of the writer, is subjoined Nicolaus' reply. A tract, Tlepl vr)<n efas, De Jejunio, a Latin version of which was first published by Zinus, with some other ascetic tracts, 8vo. Venice, 1574, is probably a part of the sixth book of the printed editions, the seventh of Photius, as it corresponds with the title given by Photius to that book. The Greek text of Morel's edition was reprinted, with the version of

MARCUS.

Picus, in the 1st vol. of the Auctarium of Ducaens, foL Paris, 1624, in the llth vol. of the Bibl. Pa~ truni) fol. Paris, 1654, and in the 8th vol. of the Bibl, Patrum of Galland. Although the eight books as a whole, with the exception, as already noticed, of the Latin supplement of Zinus De Jejunio, first appeared in 1563, the first and second books, namely, Tlepl v6fiov -Tirey/iem/coO, De Lege Spiritual^ and Tlepl r<av oiofjLevwv e| epytav Si/ccwoOcrflai, De Ms qui putant se Operibus justifieari9 had been pub­lished by Vincentius Opsopoeus, with a Latin version, 8vo. Haguenau. 1531 ; and the first book of the text and the version had been reprinted in the Micropresbyticon^ Basel, 1550, and in the Ortho-doxographa, Basel, 1555. The work Els rdv MeA.-XzfcSetf, De Melchizedech, which formed the ninth tract in the collection read by Photius, and the Greek text of the Tlepl v^arelas^ De Jejunio, were first published by B. M. Remondinus, bishop of Zante and Cephalonia, with a Latin version, 4 to. Rome, 1748, and are reprinted with the other works of Marcus, in the Bibliotlieca of Galland. Some other works are extant in MS. (Palladius, 1. c.; Sozomen, I. c. ; Photius, I.e. ; Niceph. Callist. 1. g. ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ix. p. 267, &c. ; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 401, vol. i. p. 372 ; Oudin, De Scriptor. Ecdes. vol. i. col. 902, &c. j Tillemont, Memoires, vbl, x. p. 801 ; Galland, Biblioth. Patrum, Proleg. ad Vol. VIII. c. 1.) .

11. eugenicus. [eugenicus.]

12. Of gaza. Marcus, the biographer of St. Porphyry of Gaza, lived in the fourth and fifth centuries. He was probably a native of Procon­sular Asia, from which country he travelled to visit the scenes of sacred history in the Holy Land, where he met and formed an acquaintance with Porphyry, then at Jerusalem, some time before a. d. 393. Porphyry sent him to Thessalonica to dispose of his property there ; and after his return, Marcus appears to have been the almost inseparable companion of Porphyry, by whom he was ordained deacon, and was sent, a. d. 398, to Constantinople, to obtain of the emperor Arcadius an edict for de­stroying the heathen temples at Gaza. He obtained an edict to close, not destroy them. This, however, was not effectual for putting down heathenism, and Porphyry went in person to Constantinople, taking Marcus with him, and they-were there at the time of the birth of the emperor Theodosius the Younger, A. d. 401. They obtained an imperial edict for the destruction both of the idols of the heathens and their temples; and Marcus returned with Porphyry to Gaza, where he probably remained till his death, of which we have no account. He wrote the life of Porphyry, the original Greek text of which is said to be extant in MS. at Vienna, but has never' been published. A Latin version ( Vita S. Por-pliyrii, Episcopi Gazensis), was published by Lipo-manus, in his Vitae Sanctorum, by Siirius, in his De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis, and by the Bol-landists, in the A eta Sanctorum^ Februar. vol. iii. p. 643, &c. with a Commentarius Praevius and notes by Henschenius. It is given also in the Bibliotlieca Patrum of Galland, vol. ix. p. 259, &c. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. x. p. 316 ; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 421, vol. i. p. 403 ; Oudin, De Scriptor. Ecdes. vol. i. col. 999 ; Galland, Biblioth. Patrum^ Proleg. ad Vol. IX. c. 7.)

13. haeresiarcha, the heresiarch, a gnostic teacher who appeared in the second century, and probably towards or after the middle of it. The

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