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MARCOMANNUS, a Roman rhetorician of uncertain date, wrote a work on rhetoric, of which C. Julius Victor made use in compiling his " Ars Rhetorica." The latter work was first published by A. Mai, from a MS. in the Vatican, written in the 12th century (Rome, 1823), and has been reprinted, with the other scholiasts, in the 5th volume of Orelli's Cicero, p. 195, &c.
MARCUS (Map/coy), a citizen of Ceryneia, in Achaia, had the chief hand in putting to death the tyrant of Bura, which thereupon immediately joined the Achaean League, then in process of form ation. When the constitution of the league was altered, and a single general was appointed instead of two, Marcus was the first who was invested with that dignity, in b. c. 255. In b. c. 229 the Achaeans sent ten ships to aid the Corcyraeans against the Illyrian pirates, and, in the battle which ensued, the vessel in which Marcus sailed was boarded and sunk, and he perished with all the rest of the crew. Polybius highly commends his services to the Achaean confederacy. (Pol. ii. 10, 41, 43 ; Clint. F. H. vol. ii. pp. 240, 241, vol. iii. p. 14.) [E. E.]
MARCUS, the son of the emperor Basiliscus, was created Caesar, and soon afterwards Augustus and co-emperor, by his father, in a. jd. 475, and was put to death by Zeno in 477, together with Basiliscus and the rest of his family. In conse quence of being emperor along with his father, several of the coins struck by Basiliscus, represent the portraits of both father and son. [basiliscus.] (Eckhel, vol. viii. p. 204.) [W. P.]
MARCUS (Map/cos), literary and ecclesiastical. 1. Of alexandria, patriarch of Alexandria early in the thirteenth century, proposed certain questions for solution on various points of ecclesiastical law or practice. Sixty-four of these questions, with the answers of Theodorus Balsamon [bal-samo], are given in the Jus Orientate of Bonefidius, p. 237, &c. 8vo., Paris, 1573, and in the Jus Graeco-Romanum of Leunclavius, vol. i. pp. 362— 394, fol. Frankfort, 1596. Some MSS. contain two questions and solutions more than the printed copies. Fabricius suggests that Mark of Alexandria is the Marcus cited in a MS. Catena in Mattliaei Evangelium of Macarius Chrysocephalus [chry-socephalus], extant in the Bodleian library at Oxford. (Cave, Hist. Lilt, ad ann. 1203, vol. ii. p. 279, ed. Oxford, 1740—42.)
2. Of arethusa, bishop of Arethusa, a city of Syria, on or near the Orontes, was one of three bishops sent to Rome a. d. 342 by the Eastern emperor Constantius II., to satisfy the Western emperor Constans of the justice and propriety of the deposition of Athanasius of Alexandria and Paulus of Constantinople. Marcus and his fellow-prelates are charged with having deceived Constans, by presenting to him as their confession of faith, not the Arian or Eusebian confession, lately agreed on at the synod of Antioch, but another confession, of orthodox complexion, yet not fully orthodox, which is given by Socrates. Mark appears to have acted with the Eusebian or Semi-Arian party, and took part on their side, probably in the council of Philippopolis, held by the prelates of the East, after their secession from Sardica (a. d. 347), and certainly in that of Sirmium (a. d. 359), where a heterodox confession of faith was drawn up by him. f.t is to be observed, that the
confession which is given as Mark's by Socr.ites is believed by modern critics not to be his. These critics ascribe to him the confession agreed upon by the council of Ariminum, A. d. 359, and also given by Socrates. During the short reign of Julian Marcus, then an old man, was cruelly tortured in various ways by the heathen populace of Arethusa, who were irritated by the success of his efforts to convert their fellow-townsmen to Christianity. He appears to have survived their cruelty, at least not to have died under their hands ; but we read no more of him. His sufferings for the Christian religion seem to have obliterated the discredit of his Arianism ; for Gregory Nazianzen has eulogised him in the highest terms, and the Greek church honours him as a martyr. (Athanas. de Synodis, c. 24 ; Socrates, //. E. ii. 18, 30, 37, with the notes of Vale-sius ; Sozomen, H. E. iii. 10, iv. 17, v. 10 ; Theodore t. H. E. iii. 7; Gregorius Naz. Oratio IV.; Bolland. Ada Sanctor. Mart. vol. iii. p. 774, &c.; Tillemont, Memoires, vol. vi. and vii.)
3. argent a rius. [argentarius.]
4. asceta. Mark the ascetic, or Mark of Athens, was a recluse, who had fixed his habitation in the Interior Aethiopia, in Mount Thrace, beyond the nation of the Chettaeans, apparently in the course of the fourth century. A life of him is given by the Bollandists in the A eta Sanctorum Martii, vol. iii. in a Latin version, at p. 778, &c., and in the original Greek at p. 40% &c.
5. asceta. [No. 10.]
6. atheniensis. [No. 4.]
7. diaconus. [No. 12.]
8. diadochtts. A short treatise, entitled rod fjidKaplou MdpKou rov AtaSo^ov Kara 'Apeiavav \dyos, BeatiMarciDiadocM Sermo contra Arianos, was published with a Latin version, by Jo. Rudolph. Wetstenius, subjoined to his edition of Origen, De Oratione, 4to. Basel, 1694, and was reprinted, with a new Latin version, in the BiUio-theca Patrum of Galland, vol. v. p. 242, There has been considerable doubt as to the time and place in which the author lived. Some have identified him, but without reason, with Diadochus, bishop of Photice, in Epeirus Vetus (Oom/ojs rrjs €V rfj TraXcuoi 'H-rretptp tTrfrrKOTros), who wrote a work on the ascetic life which is briefly described by Photius (Bibl. cod. 201), and whom critics, on uncertain ground, assign to the middle of the fifth century. But there is no ground for this identification, as Diadochus of Photice does not appear to have been ever called Marcus. Others suppose Marcus Diadochus to have been one of the two Egyptian bishops of the name of Marcus, who were banished by the Arians during the patriarchate of George of Cappadocia [geor-gius, No. 7] at Alexandria, and who, having been restored in the reign of Julian, were present (a. d. 362) at a synod held at Alexandria, and are named in the heading of the letter of Athanasius, usually cited as Tomus ad Antiockenos. (Comp. Athanas, Apolog. de Fuga sua, c. 7.) Galland suggests that Marcus Diadochus may have been one of two bishops of the name of Marcus, ordained by Alexander, the predecessor of Athanasius, and who were banished by the Arians, one into the Oasis Magna in Upper Egypt, and the other to the Oasis of Ammon (Athanas. Hist. Arianor. ad Monack. c. 72) ; but we identify these with the two just mentioned. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ix. p. 266, &c.; Cave, Hist, Litt. ad ann, 356, vol. i. p. 217