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MARCIANUS.

August. Vindel. 1600, 8vo., then by Morell, Paris, 1602, 8vo., and subsequently by Hudson, in the first volume of his " Geographi Graeci Minores," Oxon. 1698, and by Miller, Paris, 1839, 8vo. They have been also published separately by Hoff-mann, " Marciani Periplus, Menippi Peripli Fragm. &c.," Lips. 1841, 8vo. (Fabric. Bibl. Graee. vol. iv. p. 613, &c.; Dodwell, de Aetate et Scriptis Marciani, in Hudson, L c.; Ukert, Geographic der Griechen und 'Homer, vol. i. pars i. p. 235 ; Forbiger, Handbuch der alien Geographic, vol. i. p. 448.)

MARCIANUS (Mapriawfc), a physician at Rome, who enjoyed a great reputation as an ana­tomist in the second century after Christ, and wrote some works on that subject, which are now lost. Galen became personally acquainted with him during his first visit to Rome, about A. d. 165, and tells an anecdote of him which shows him to have been an envious and malicious person {De Praenot. ad Epig. c. 3, vol. xiv. p. 614, &c.). He is probably the same person as the physician named Martialis, though it is uncertain which name is correct.

Some medical formulae by a physician of the same name are quoted by Aetius (ii. 3. 110, ii. 4. 47, iii. 3. 11, pp. 358, 402, 554) and Scriboniiis Largus (c. 46. § 177. p. 223) ; but this cannot be the same person as the contemporary of Galen, as he lived about the beginning of the Christian era in the reign of Augustus. [W. A. G.]

MARCIANUS,AE'LIUS,a Roman jurist, who wrote after the death of Septimius Severus, whom he calls Divus (Dig. 50. tit. 4. s. 7). Another passage (48. tit. 17. s. 1) shows that he was then writing under Antoninus Caracalla, the son and successor of Severus. It also appears from his Institutions, that he survived Caracalla (Dig. 35. tit. 1. s. 33 ; Cod. 9. tit. 8. s. 8). It is therefore probable that he also wrote under Alexander Severus, whose reign commenced A. d. 222. Caracalla died a. d. 217. Another Aelius Marcianus is cited in the Digest, who was proconsul of Baetica in the time of An­toninus Pius (Dig. 1. tit. 6. s. 2, where Ulpian gives the rescript of Pius addressed to this Marcianus).

The works of Marcianus, from which there are excerpts in the Digest, are :—Sixteen books of In-stitutiones, from which there are excerpts in the Digest: this work was also used for the compilation of Justinian's Institutions (compare Inst. 4. tit. 3. s. 1, and Dig. 32. s. 65. § 4 ; Inst. 2. tit. 18, " hoc colore," &c., and Dig. 5. tit. 2. s. 2) ; two books on Publica Judicia ; two books on Appella-tiones ; five books entitled Regularia; a single book on Delatores ; a single book on the Hypothecaria Formula ; and a single book ad Set. Turpillianum. He also wrote notes on Papinian. Marcianus is cited by Ulpianus and Paulus. There are 275 excerpts from Marcianus in the Digest. Zimmern (Geschickte des Rom. Privatrechts) cites a work by G. Oelrichs, De Vita9 Studiis, Honoribus et Scriptis Ad. Marciani ICti. Traj. ad Rhen. 1754. 4to.

There are rescripts addressed by Alexander Se­verus to A. Marcianus (Cod. 2. tit. 13. s. 6) and to A. Martianus, which may be the same name (Cod. 7. tit. 21. s. 4), and one by Gordian to A. Mar­tianus in the year 239 (Cod. 4. tit. 21. s. 4) ; but this may be a different person from the jurist whose writings are excerpted in the Digest. [G. L.]

MARCIANUS MINEUS FELIX CA-PELLA. [capella.]

MARCION.

MARCIANUS, GE'SSIUS, a native of Syria, the husband of Julia Mamaea, by whom he was the reputed father of Alexander Severus. We know nothing of his history, except that he on seve­ral occasions discharged the duties of an imperial procurator. (Dion Cass. Ixxviii. 30.) [W. RJ

MARCIANUS, GRA'NIUS* a Roman sena­tor, was accused of majestas in a. d. 35, by C. Gracchus, and put an end to his own life. (Tac. Ann. vi. 38.)

MARCIANUS ICELUS. [IcELus,]

MARCILIUS, attended Cicero as interpreter during his journey in Asia Minor and his admi­ nistration of Cilicia, from August, u. c. 51, to the following February. Cicero highly recommends Marcilius, his son, and his family interests to Q. Minucius Thermus, propraetor of Asia. (Ad Fam. xiii. 54.) [W. B. D.]

MARCION (MapK/wp,) one of the most cele­brated of the so-called heretics of the second cen­tury. He was a native of Pontus. The account, prevalent in the days of Epiphanius, of which there is no reason to doubt the correctness, made him a native of Sinope in Hellenopontus. Tertullian re­peatedly calls him a ship-master, nauclerus (Adv. Marc. i. 18, iii. 6, iv. 9, &c.), and, according to one MS. and the version of Rufinus, Rhodon, a writer of the latter part of the second century (apud Euseb. H. E. v. 13), calls him the seaman Mar-cion. Some moderns have doubted whether so learned a man could have been in such an occupa­tion, bu£ we see no reason to question the state­ment, nor does his learning appear to have been great. His father was bishop of a Christian church (probably at Sinope), but there is reason to think! that Marcion had grown up before his father's conversion, for Tertullian intimates (De Praescrip. Hereticor. c. 30) that he had been a stoic, and speaks of his " finding out God" (Adv. Marcion, i. 1), expressions which indicate that he had not been brought up as a Christian, but had become a convert in an adult age, after inquiry, and on his own conviction. Be this as it may, he appears to have been a sincere and earnest believer, charac­terised by the severity of his ascetic practices; nor does he at first seem to have entertained, at least he did not avow, any opinions at variance with the usual belief of the church with which he was in full communion.

The course of his life was, however, altogether al­tered by his excommunication. The occasion of this is, in the spurious addition to one of the works of Tertullian (De Praescrip. Haeret. c. 51), and by Epi­phanius, stated to have been his seduction of a girl; but the silence of Tertullian in his genuine works, and of the other early opponents of Marcion, ready as they would have been to lay hold on anything unfavourable to him, throws,as Beausobre and Lard-ner have shown, considerable doubt on the accusa­tion. Beausobre and Neander suppose that, he was cut off from the church on account of his having already begun to propagate his obnoxious senti­ments as to the Mosaic dispensation and the Old Testament generally. Even if the charge brought against him by Epiphanius be credited, there is no reason to regard his delinquency as an evidence of habitual licentiousness : it stands in marked con­trast with the rigour of his system and with the ordinary tenor of his life, and at a later period he himself excommunicated Apelles, one of his disci­ples, for a similar, perhaps even a less heinous,

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