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should now term a dissertation on synonyms, being a collection of words not in alphabetical order, which, although allied in signification, express distinct modifications of thought, such as auspidum and augurium, urbs and civitas, superstitio and religio.
cap. VI. De Impropriis, a collection of words, not in alphabetical order, which are frequently employed, not in their true and literal, but in a figurative sense, such as liber, fucus, rostrum; the greater number of the examples, however, ought to have been included in chapter iv.
cap. VII. De Contrariis Generibus Verborum, a collection of verbs not in alphabetical order, which, although usually deponent, are occasionally found assuming the active form, and vice versa, such as vagas for vagaris, contempla for contem-plare, praesagitur for praesagit. Intermingled are archaic forms, such as esuribo for esuriam, which belong to c. x., and some of which are actually repeated there, as expedibo for expediam; and some archaic constructions, such as potior ittam rem, liberiatem uti, opus est illam rein, which are altogether out of place, but might have been inserted in chapter ix.
cap. VIII. De Mutata Declinatione, a collection of nouns, not in alphabetical order, which vary in form or in declension, or in both, as itiner, tier; lacte, lac ; poema, poematum ; pervious, pervicax ; senati, senatuis, senatus, for the genitive of senatus.
cap. IX. De Generibus et Casibus, a collection of passages in which one case seems to be substituted for another, such asfastidit mei, non ego sum dignus salutis.
cap. X. De Mutatis Conjugationibus, a collection of verbs, not in alphabetical order, which are conjugated sometimes according to one form, sometimes according to another, such as fervit and fervet, cupiret and cuperet, lavit and lavat. Some of the examples belong to c. vii., such as possetur for posset, poteratur for poterat; others, such as expedibo, audibo, ought to have constituted a separate section.
cap. XI. De Indiscretis Adverbiis, a collection of adverbs, not in alphabetical order, which occasionally appear under forms at variance with ordinary usage or with analogy, such as amiciter, ampliter, fidele, memore, pugnitus, largitus.
cap. XII. De Doctomm Indagine, is a complete medley, being a sort of supplement to the preceding books, and containing, in addition, some curious notices upon matters of antiquarian research. ' cap. XIII.—XVIII. are all in the style of the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux, each containing a series of technical terms in some one department. They are severally entitled De Genere Navigiorum, De Genere Vestimentorum, De Genere Vasorum vel Poculorwnif De Genere vel Colore Vestimentorum, De Genere Ciborum vel Pomorum, De Genere Ar-morum, De Propinquitate* of which the last appears to be an unfinished sketch.
Although the attentive reader will soon discover that he can repose no confidence in the learning, critical sagacity, or logical precision of Nonius Marcellus, this compilation must ever be looked upon as one of value, since it is in a great measure made up of quotations from the early dramatists, annalists, satirists, and antiquaries, from Accius, . Afranius, L. Andronicus, Caecilius, Ennius, No-niurs^ Pacuvius, Turpilius, Lucilius, Cato, and Varro, writers whose chief works have not descended to
us, and" most of whom exist in fragments only, as well as from Plautus, Terence, Lucretius, Cicero, Virgil, and a few others, of whom we have more copious remains, thus affording many curious specimens of what we can find nowhere else, and occasionally enabling us to correct and illustrate the text of those productions which have been preserved entire.
The Editio Princeps of Nonius Marcellus is, according to the best bibliographic authorities, a folio volume, in Roman characters, without date and without name of place or printer, but which is known to have been printed at Rome, by George Laver, about 1470. The first edition with a date was published in 1471, and is, like the former, without name of place or printer. The first critical edition was that of Junius, 8vo. Antv. 1565, which was followed by that, of Gothofredus, 8vo. Paris, 1586. Considerable reputation was enjoyed by the editions of Mercier, 8vo. Paris, 1583 and 1614, especially the second, which gave a new recension of the text, and was reprinted at Leipzig, 8vo. 1826. This, however, as well as every other, is now superseded by the edition of Gerlach and Roth, 8vo. Basil, 1842, which is in every respect infinitely superior to any of its predecessors. It contains, as well as those of Junius, Gothofredus, and Mercier, the tract of Fulgentius Planciades, " De Prisco Sermone." [fulgentius.] (Osann, Beitr'dge zur Griech. und Rom. Litteraturgescht. p. 381; Praef. ad ed. T. D. Gerlach, et C. L. Roth.) [W. R.]
MARCELLUS, ORO'NTIUS, was the person to whom Longinus addressed his treatise Ilepi TA\ovs, or De Finibus. (Longin. Fr. 5. ed. Weiske.) He was a pupil of Plotinus. (Porphyr. Vit. Plotin. 7.) A daughter of Marcellus studied philosophy, and married Porphyry, the biographer of Plotinus. (Cyril, contr. Julian, p. 209 ; Eunap. Vit. Sophist. Porphyr.) [W. B. D.]
MARCELLUS, a physician who appears to have lived in the first century after Christ in the reign of Nero, A. d. 54—68. (Marcell. Empir. de Medicam. c. 20, p. 332, ed. H. Steph.) He is perhaps the same person who is quoted by Galen (DeRemed. Parab. ii. 21, vol. xiv. p. 459), Ae'tius (iii. 1, 49, p. 506), Paulus Aegineta (iii. 41, 79, iv. 11, vi. 48, pp. 460, 498, 507, 570), and Alexander Trallianus (viii. 8, p. 256, ed. H. Steph.) [W. A. G.]
MARCELLUS, M. POMPO'NIUS, a grammarian, who sometimes also pleaded causes, lived in the reign of Tiberius, and was celebrated as a rigid purist in language. There is an anecdote respecting this Marcellus and the emperor Tiberius related in Vol. I. p. 599, b. (Suet, de Ittus. Gramm. 22 ; Dion Cass. Ivii. 17.)
MARCELLUS SIDETES, a native of Side in Pamphylia, was born to wards the end of the first century after Christ, and lived in the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, a. d. 117—161. He wrote a long medical poem in Greek hexameter verse, consisting of forty-two books, which was held in such estimation, that it was ordered by* the emperors to be placed in the public libraries at Rome. (Suid. s. v. Map/ceAAos, and Kuster's note; Eudoc. Violar. apud Villoison, Anecd. Graeca, vol. i. p. 299.) Of this work only two fragments remain, one Ilepl AvKav8p(6irov, De Lycanthropia, and the other larpiKd Trepi 'Ix0jW, De Remediis ex Piscibus. Of these the former is preserved (but in prose} by Ae'tius (ii. 2, 11, jp. 254 ; compare, Paul. Aegin.