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MANUEL.

J255. The duration of his patriarchate is fixed by Nicephorus Callisti, according to Le Quien, at eleven years, but the table in the Protrepticon of Labbe assigns to him fourteen years ; so that A. d. 1241 or 1244 will be assumed as the year of his accession, according as one or the other of these-authorities is preferred. Manuel held, before his patriarchate, a high place among the ecclesiastics of the Byzantine court then fixed at Nice, and was reputed a man of piety and holiness ** though married," and of mild and gentle disposition, but by no means learned. The three Sententiae Sy-nodales of the patriarch Manuel, given in the Jus Graeco-Romanum, undoubtedly belong to this pa­triarch, not to Charitopulus [see No. 4], for the second of them, De Translatione Episcoporum, is expressly dated July, Indict. 8, A. m. 6758, era of Constant. = a. d. 1250. Some works in MS., especially a letter to pope Innocent, by " Manuel Patriarcha CPol.," probably belong to the subject of this article, (Georg. Acropolit. Annal. c. 42, 51, 52, 53, pp. 39, 54, 56, 57, ed. Paris, pp. 77, 107, 110, 112, ed. Bonn; Ephraem. de Joan. Duca. Vatatze, vs. 8860; DeTheod. Duca. Lascare, vs. 8922; De Patriarch. CP. vs. 10,267, &c.; Le Quien, Oriens Christ, vol. i. col. 279; Cave and Oudin, as in No. 4 ; Fabricius, BibL Graec. vol, xi. p. 668.)

8. holobolus ('OAo'&wAos), a Byzantine writer of the latter part of the thirteenth century. When the ambitious Michael Palaeologus [michael VIII.] deprived his youthful colleague Joannes Lascaris [joannes IV.] of his eyes and his share in the empire, and sent him into banishment about A. d. 1261 or 1262, Holobolus, then a lad pur­suing his studies, was cruelly mutilated by order of Michael, his nose and lips being cut off, because he had expressed grief at the treatment of the young emperor. The mutilated lad was confined to the monastery of the Precursor (tow 7rpo5/>oyuou), where having excellent abilities and good oppor­tunity, he pursued his studies with such success, that the patriarch Germanus III. of Constanti­nople [germanus, No. 8], shortly after his ac­cession to the patriarchate, a. d. 1267, procured him to be appointed master of the school for the instruction of young ecclesiastics, and prevailed upon the emperor to remit his punishment, and allow him to quit the monastery. The patriarch also conferred upon him the ecclesiastical office of rhetor, reader and expounder of the Scriptures, and showed him much kindness. When the em­peror formed the design of a reconciliation of the Greek and Latin churches, Holobolus was one of the ecclesiastics of whose counsels he availed him­self. Holobolus, however, did not enter very heartily into the business ; and, having been hurt by a slight offered him by the emperor, he changed sides, and when called upon to give his opinion in a synod at Constantinople, declared against the plan of reconciliation altogether. This drew from the emperor, who was present, an outburst of re­proach ; to which the angry ecclesiastic gave so blunt and undaunted a reply, that he was near being torn to pieces by the courtiers who surrounded the emperor. He took sanctuary in the great church, but being taken from thence, was banished to the monastery of Hyacinthus at Nice, a. d. 1273. Before long he was brought back to Con­stantinople, cruelly beaten, and paraded with various circumstances of ignominy through the

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MARCELLA.

streets. In A. b. 1283, after the accession of Andro-nicus II. Palaeologus, son of Michael, who pursued with respect to the union of the churches an oppo­site policy to that of his father, Holobolus appeared in the synod of Constantinople, in which Joannes Veccus [ veccus] was deposed from the patriarchate of Constantinople, and he took part in the subse­quent disputations with that chief of the Latinizing party. Little else is known of Holobolus (Georg. Pachym. de Midi. Palaeol. iii. 11, iv. 14, v. 12, 20 ; De Andron. Palaeol. i. 8, 34, 35.)

Holobolus wrote Versus Politici in Michaelem Palaeologum, cited in the Glossarium in Scriptores Med. et Infim. Graecitatis of Ducange, s. v. 'Prfrup. These are probably the same verses which are extant in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, under the title of Versus Politici XXV. de Vanitate om­nium Rerum. 2. The 'E/tyojj'eTa*, Scholia in Aram Dosiadae, published by Valcknaer, in the Diatribe in Euripidis perditorum Dramatum Reliquias (c. xii.), subjoined to his edition of the Hippolytus of Euripides (4to. Leyden, 1768), may be probably ascribed to our Holobolus. But the Apologia ad Erotemata Frandsci Ordinis Praedicatorum Mo-nachi, published, though in a mutilated form, in the Varia Sacra of LeMoyne (vol. i. pp. 268—293), appears to be by a later writer described as "Manuel Rhetor," whom Cave places a. d. 1500, and whc lived for many years after that time. (Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. vol. xi. p. 669 ; Cave. Hist. Litt. Appendix, ad ann. 1500, vol. ii. Appendix^ p. 224.)

9. moschopulus. [moschopulus.]

10. phile. [phile.]

11. rhetor. [No. 8.]

12. straboromanus, a Byzantine writer of the time of Alexius Comnenus. He wrote on astro­logy, and some of his works are extant in MS. (Fabric. Bibl Graec. vol. xi. p. 670.) [J. C. M.]

MARATHON (Mapaflo^), the hero eponymus of the Attic town of Marathon. According to some traditions, he was a son of Epopeus ; and being driven from Peloponnesus by the violence of his father, he went to Attica. After his father's death, he returned to Peloponnesus, divided his inheritance between his two sons, and then settled in Attica. (Paus. ii. 1. § 1, 15. § 4, 32, § 4.) According to others, Marathon was an Arcadian, and took part with. the Tyndaridae in their expe­ dition against Attica, and in pursuance of an oracle, devoted himself to death before the beginning of the battle. (Plut. Thes. 32 ; comp. Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 7.) [L. S.]

MARATHUS, JU'LIUS, a freedman of the emperor Augustus, who wrote an account of the life of his master. (Suet. Aug. 79, 94.)

MARCELLA. 1. Daughter of C. Marcellus, C. p., and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. She was married, first to M. Vipsanius Agrippa, who separated from her in b. c. 21, after the death of her brother, Marcellus (No. 15), in order to marry Julia, the daughter of Augustus. After this her uncle gave her in marriage, secondly, to Julus Antonius, the son of the triumvir [antonius, No. 19], by whom she had a son Lucius. After his death she married, thirdly, Sext. Appuleius, who was consul in a. d. 14, by whom she had a daughter, Appuleia Varilia. (Plut. Anton. 87; Dion Cass. liii. 1, liv. 6; Veil. Pat. ii. 93, 100; Suet, Aug. 63 ; Tac. Ann. ii. 50.)

2. Sister of the preceding. (Plut. Ant. 87 5 Suet.-4 w#. 63.) • . • [E. H. B.]

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