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xxix.), Mamurra is attacked, together with the dictator, with the severest invectives ; but, instead of resenting the insult, Caesar simply retaliated by inviting the poet to dine with him. In another poem of Catullus (Carm. Ivii.), Mamurra and Caesar are said to have lived on the most disgraceful terms; and.the former is again alluded to in a third poem (Carm. xiii. 4), under the name of decoctor For-mianus. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 6, s. 7 ; Suet. Caes. 73 ; Cic. ad Att. vii. 7, xiii. 52.) Mamurra seems to have been alive in the time of Horace, who calls Formiae, in ridicule, Mamurrarum urbs (Sat. i. 5. 37), from which we may infer that his name had become a bye-word of contempt.
MANA or MANA GE'NITA, an ancient Italian divinity. When a sacrifice was offered to her, the people used to pray that none of those born in the house should become pious, that is, that none should die. (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 52.) The name Mana is of the same root as Manes, and like manis (whence immanis) originally signified good. (Comp. Macrob. Sat. i. 3 ; Serv. ad Aen. iii. 63 ; Isidor. Orig. viii. 11.) It. is not impossible that Mana may be the same divinity as Mania. [L. S.]
MANAECHMUS or MENAECHMUS (Mc£-vaixpos or Mevaix^os). 1. A native of Sicyon, who lived in the time of the first Ptolemy. He was the son of a man named Alcibius or Alcibiades. He wrote an account of Alexander the Great; a treatise irepl t^xvitwv, quoted by Athenaeus, ii. p. 65, a,, and elsewhere ; and a treatise entitled StKuwi/ta/fa, quoted by Athenaeus, vi. p. 271, d. Menaechmus is also quoted by the scholiast on Pindar- (Nem. ii. ], ix. 30), and by Pliny, H. N. iv. 12. s. 21. (Suid. s.v. MdvaixposiVoasiuSideHist. Gr. p. 102, ed. Westermann.) [menaechmus.]
MAN ASSES, CONSTANTI'NU S, (Kwarrav-rlvos 6 Mavda-ffrj), lived in the middle of Jhe twelfth century, during the reign of the emperor fyfanuel Comnenus, and wrote 2tfvo$is la-ropiK-n, being a chronicle from the creation of the world, down to the accession of Alexis I. Comnenus, in 1081. This work is written in a sort of verses which the later writers called versus politici, but which is rather rhythmical prose ; it contains 6733 of such verses, and 12 supplementary verses. Editions:—A Latin version by J. Leunclavius, Basel, 1573, 8vo. ; the Greek text, from a Codex Palatinus, with the version of Leunclavius, and notes by J. Meursius, Leyden, 1616, 4to ; the same revised (with Variae Lectiones by Leo Alla-tius), from two Parisian MSS., by Fabrot, who added a valuable glossary, Paris, 1655, fol. ; the last edition is that by Im. Bekker, Bonn, 1837, 8vo., a revised reprint of the Paris edition. The edition by Meursius is remarkable for being dedicated to the great king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus. ( Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 469, &c.; Hamberger, Nachrickt.von Gelehrt. M'dnnern.) [W.P.]
MANCIA, CURTI'LIUS, was legatus of the army on the upper Rhine, in the reign of Nero, and assisted Dubius Avitus, praefect of Gaul and lower Germany, in putting down the league of the Tenctheri, Bructeri, and Ampsivarii, against the Romans, A. d. 56—59. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 56 ; Phlegon, de Admir. 27.) [W. B. I).]
MANCIA, HE'LVIUS, a Roman orator (about B. c. 90), who was remarkably ugly, and whose name is recorded chiefly in consequence of a laugh being raised against him on account of his deformity by C. Julius Caesar Strabo [caesar, No. 10], who was opposed to him on one occasion in some law-suit. (Cic. de Orat. ii. 66 ; Quintil. vi. 3. § 38 ; Plin. H+ N. xxxv. 4 : the last writer mentions the orator Crassus as the person who raised the laugh against Mancia.) Cicero further relates a smart saying of Mancia on another occasion (de Orat. ii. 68).
2. A. hostilius L. f. A. n. mancinus, was praetor urbanus b. c. 180, and consul b. c. 170 with A. Atilius Serranus. In his consulship he had the conduct of the war against Perseus, king of Macedonia ; but from the fragmentary nature of the accounts that have come down to us, we are unable to form any definite idea of the campaign. So much, however, seems certain, that he conducted the war for the most part on the defensive. He remained in Greece for part of the next year (b. c. 169) as proconsul; and after passing the winter in Thessaly, he endeavoured to penetrate into Macedonia, but was obliged to retire before the superior force of Perseus. [For the details see perseus.] In the same year he surrendered the command to his successor, the consul Q. Marcius Philippus, leaving behind him the reputation of having kept his soldiers in good discipline, and preserved the allies from injury, although he had performed no exploit worthy of mention. (Liv. xl. 35, xliii. 4 —11, 17, xliv. 1 ; Polyb. xxvii. 14, xxviii. 3, &c.; Plut. Aemil. Paul. 9.)
2. L. hostilius mancinus, probably son of No. 1, was engaged as legate of the consul L. Cal-purnius Piso (b.c. 148) in the siege of Carthage, in the third Punic war. He commanded the fleet, while Piso was at the head of the land-forces ; and, notwithstanding some repulses which he received, he had the glory of being the first to take part of the town, which was finally conquered by Scipio in b. c. 146. Mancinus on his return to Rome exhibited in the forum paintings, containing views of Carthage and of the different attacks made upon it by the Romans, and was constantly ready to explain to the people all the details of the pictures. He became in consequence such a favourite with the people, that he was elected consul in b. c. 145 with Q. Fabius Maximus Aemilianus. (Ap-pian, Pun. 110—114 ; Liv. Epit. 51 ; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 4. s. 7 ; Cic. Lael. 25.)
3. C. hostilius mancinus, probably a brother of No. 2, was consul in b. c. 137 with M. Aemilius Lepidus Porcina, and had the conduct of the war against Numantia. Its unsuccessful issue was foretold the consul by many prodigies. He was defeated by the Numantines in several engagements, and at length, being entirely surrounded by the enemy, he negotiated a peace, through the intervention of his quaestor Tib. Gracchus, who was greatly respected by the enemy. Appian says that this peace contained the same terms for the Romans and Numantines ; but as it must in that case have recognised the independence of the latter, the senate refused to recognise it, and went through the hypocritical ceremony of delivering ovei the consul