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MAMERCINITS,

391, when, in conjunction with his colleague C. Lucretius, he conquered the people of Volsinii. (Liv. v. 26, 28, 32 ; Diod. xiv. 97, 107.)

6. L. aemilius mam. f. M. n. mamercinus, son. of No. 3, was consular tribune seven times, first in b.c. 391 (Fast. Capit.), a second time in 389, a third time in 387, a fourth time in 383, a fifth time in 382, a sixth time in 380, and a seventh time in 377. (Liv. vi. 1, 5, 21, 22, 27, 32.)

7. L. aemilius L. p. mam. n. mamercinus, son of No. 6, was magister equitum to the dictator M. Furius Camillus, b. c. 368. He was consul in b. c. 366 with L. Sextius Lateranus, who was the first plebeian elected to this dignity, in accordance with the Licinian law, which had been recently passed. He was again elected to the consulship in B. c. 363, with Cn. Genucius Aventinensis. (Liv. vi. 38, vii. 1, 3 ; Diod. xv. 82, xvi. 2.)

8. L. aemilius L. p. L. n. mamercinus, son of No. 7, was interrex in b. c. 353, and magister equitum to C. Julius Julus in B. c. 352. (Liv. vii. 17,21.)

9. L. aemilius L. p. L. n. mamercinus privernas, the son of No. 8, a distinguished general in the Samnite wars, was consul for the first time in b. c. 341 with C. Plautius Venno Hypsaeus, in which year he merely laid waste the Samnite territory. In b. c. 335 he was elected dictator, for the purpose of holding the comitia as the consuls were absent from Rome. In b. c. 329 he was consul a second time with C. Plautius De-cianus. There was great alarm at Rome at this time, in consequence of a report that the Gauls were marching southward. Accordingly, while Decianus proceeded against Privernum, which con­tinued to prolong its resistance, Mamercinus began to levy a large army, in order to oppose the Gauls; but as the report of the Gaulish inroad proved to be unfounded, both consuls united their forces against Privernum. The town was taken, and Mamercinus as well as his colleague obtained a triumph in consequence. The capture of this town must have been regarded as a very glorious achievement, since Mamercinus received the sur­name of Privernas, and the Plautii preserved the recollection of it upon their coins. In b.c. 316 Mamercinus was again elected dictator, and fought against the Samnites with success. (Liv. viii. 1, 16, 20, ix. 21.)

10. tib. aemilius tib. p. tib. n. mamerci­nus, consul B. c. 339 with Q. Publilius Philo. Aemilius, invested his colleague with the dictator­ship, for the purpose of depriving the _curiae of a great part of their power. (See Diet, of Ant. s. v. Publiiiae Leges.) Livy attributes the appointment of Publilius by Aemilius to disappointment on the part of the latter, who had been refused a triumph by the senate ; but respecting the real reason for this step, 'see Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. iii. p. 146, &c. (Liv. viii. 12.)

MAMERCINUS, PINA'RIUS. 1. P. Pi-narius mamercinus rufus, consul b. c. 489, with C. Julius Julus. [julus, No. 1.]

2. L. pinarius mamercinus rufus, consul b. c. 472 with P. Furius Medullinus Fusus. (Liv. ii. 56; Dionys. ix. 40; Diod. xi. 66 ; Macrob. Saturn, i. 13.)

3. L. pinarius L. p. P. n. mamercinus rufus, consular tribune b. c. 4,32. (Liv. iv. 25 ; Diod. xii< 60.)

MAMERTINUS. 911

MAMERCUS (M^jue/3/cos), according to one tradition a son of kingNuma, who chose this name because one of the sons of Pythagoras likewise bore it. (Plut. Num. 8 ; Paul. Diac. p. 23, ed. Miiller.) Another tradition made Mamercus a son of Mars and Sylvia. (Plut. Paralf. Gr. et Rom. 26.) Festus says that Mamercus was a praenomen among the Oscans, who called the god Mars, Mamers. But it would seem that Marcius or Mamercus was the common name for indigenous soothsayers and founders of new forms of religious worship, for it occurs in many instances of this kind. (Hartung, Die Rel. der Rom. vol. i. p. 129.) [L. S.]

MAMERCUS (Mdpepicos), tyrant of Catana, at the time when Timoleon landed in Sicily, b. c. 344. He is termed by Plutarch a man both war­ like and wealthy. After the defeat of Hicetas at Adranum by Timoleon, Mamercus joined the latter and concluded a treaty of alliance with him. But when Timoleon had not only made himself master of Syracuse, but defeated the Carthaginians in the great battle of the Crimissus (b. c. 339), Mamercus became apprehensive that his object was nothing less than the complete expulsion of all the tyrants from Sicily, and in consequence concluded a league with Hicetas and the Cartha­ ginians to oppose his progress. They at first ob­ tained a partial success, and cut to pieces a body of mercenaries in the Syracusan service ; but Hi­ cetas was defeated by Timoleon, and soon after fell into his hands ; after which the Corinthian leader marched against Catana. Mamercus met him in the field, but was defeated with heavy loss, and the Carthaginians now concluded a peace with Timoleon. Thus abandoned by his allies Mamer­ cus despaired of success, and fled to Messana, where he took refuge with Hippon, tyrant of that city. Timoleon, however, quickly followed, and laid siege to Messana both by sea and land, where­ upon Hippon took to flight, and Mamercus sur­ rendered to the Corinthian general, stipulating only for a regular trial before the Syracusans. But as soon as he was brought into the assembly of the people there, he was condemned by accla­ mation, and executed like a common malefactor. (Plut. Timol. 13, 30, 31, 34; Diod. xvi. 69, 82 ; Corn. Nep. Timol. 2.) We may, perhaps, infer from an expression of Cornelius Nepos, that Ma­ mercus 'was not a Sicilian by birth, but had first come to the island as a leader of Italian mercena­ ries. Plutarch informs us (Timol. 31) that he prided himself much upon his skill in poetry, ap­ parently with but little reason, if we may judge from the two verses preserved to us by that author. [E.H. B,] MAMERCUS, AEMI'LIUS. [mamercinus.] MAMERCUS SCAURUS. [scaurus.] MAMERS was the Oscan name of the god Mars. (Paul. Diac. p. 131, ed. Miiller.) Varro (De Ling. Lot. v. 73; comp. Plut. Num. 21), on the other hand, calls Mamers the Sabine name of the god. The Romans worshipped Mamers as. a rustic di­ vinity, and reckoned him among the country Lares. (Cato, de Re Rust. 83, 141.) The ancients derived the name of the Mamertines in Messana from the god Mamers. [Li S.]

MA MERTINUS. The first piece in the collec­tion of the " Panegyrici Veteres" [see drepanius] usually bears the title, Claudii Mamertini Panegy-ricus Maotimiano Herculio dictus^ was spoken on the 21st of April, in the year a. d. 289, at some

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