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and thus gave rise to the mutiny which proved fatal both to herself and to her son, who is said to have upbraided her with his dying breath as the cause of his destruction. Their death took place in Gaul, early in the year a.d. 235. (For authorities, see caracalla ; elagabalus ; severus.) [W. R.]
MAMERCINUS or MAMERCUS, the most ancient family of the patrician Aemilia Gens, and one of the most distinguished of all the Roman families in the early ages of the republic. The family professed to derive its name from Mamercus in the reign of Numa, to whom indeed all the Aemilii traced their origin. [mamercus; aemilia gens.] This family, like many of the other distinguished families in early Roman history, disappears about the time of the Samnite wars. The name Mamercus was very early used as a prae-nomen in the Aemilia gens, and continued to be so employed, especially by the Aemilii Lepidi, long after the family of this name had become extinct. In the same way we find that Cossus, which was originally a family-name of the Cornelii, was revived as a praeribmen by the Cornelii Lentuli, after the family of the Cossi had sunk into oblivion. [Cossus.]
1. L. aemilius mam. p. mamercus, consul for the first time in b. c. 484 with K. fabius vibulanus, conquered the Volsci and Aequi, according to Livy, but suffered a defeat from them, according to the statement of Dionysius, who also says that Mamercus was in consequence ashamed to go into the city for the purpose of holding the comitia. (Liv. ii. 42 ; Dionys. viii. 83—87 ; Diod. xi. 38.) He was consul a second time in b. c. 478 with C. Servilius Structus Ahala, and defeated the Veientines before the walls of their city with great slaughter. He subsequently concluded a treaty with them on terms which the senate regarded as too favourable, and was in consequence denied the honour of a triumph. (Liv. ii. 49 ; Dionys. ix. 16, 17; Diod. xi. 52.) He was consul a third time in b.c. 473 with Vopiscus Julius Julus. For the events of this year see julus, No. 3, where the authorities are given. We learn from Dionysius (ix. 51) that he supported in b.c. 470 the agrarian law, on account of his hostility to the senate for having denied him a triumph.
2. tib. aemilius L. f. mam. n. mamercus, son of No. 1, was consul in b. c. 470 with L. Valerius Potitus. Their year of office was one of considerable agitation, on account of the agrarian law and the trial of App. Claudius. Tib. Mamercus supported the law along with his father, because the latter had been wronged by the senate. [No. 1.] He also led an army into the country of the Sabines, but did not perform anything of consequence. (Liv. ii. 61, 62 ; Dionys. ix. 51, ,55 ; Diod. xi. 69.) He was consul a second time ,in b. c. 467 with Q. Fabius Vibulanus, and again
warmly supported the agrarian law: in each year it was no doubt the execution of the Cassian law which he endeavoured to carry into effect. In this year he was to some extent successful. Without disturbing the occupiers of the public land, some land which had been taken from the Volsci in the preceding year was assigned to the plebs, and a colony sent to Antium. Mamercus carried on war against the Sabines again in this year. (Liv. iii. 1; Dionys. ix. 59 ; Diod. xi. 74 ; comp. Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. ii. pp. 229, 230.)
3. mam, aemilius M. f. mamercinus, consular tribune in b.c. 438. (Liv. iv. 16 ; Diod. xii. 38.) In b. c. 437 he was nominated dictator, to prosecute the war against the Veientines and Fidenates, because Fidenae had revolted in the previous year to Lar Tolumnius, the king of Veii. He appointed L. Quinctius Cincinnatus his magister equitum, and gained a brilliant victory over the forces of the enemy, and obtained a triumph in consequence. (Liv. iv. 17—20; Eutrop, i. 19 ; Lydus, de Magistr. i. 38.) It was in this battle that Lar Tolumnius is said by Livy to have been killed in single combat by Cornelius Cossus ; but it is very doubtful whether this event happened in this year. [See Cossus, No. 2.] Indeed the conquest of the Fidenates and the death of Lar Tolumnius is referred by Niebuhr to B. c. 426, in which year Aemilius Mamercinus is stated to have been dictator for the third time. And it is not improbable, as Niebuhr remarks, that u some member of the Aemilian house found matter in legendary traditions for an apocryphal panegyric on this Aemilius: in this panegyric more dictatorships were probably ascribed to him than he ever really filled, and the exploits achieved under his auspices, as well as his own, were referred to definite years, which they did not belong to. (Hist, of Rome, vol. ii. p. 458.)
But, returning to the ancient authorities, we find that Aemilius Mamercinus is put down as dictator a second time in b. c. 433 with A. Postumius Tu-bertus as his magister equitum. He was appointed to the dictatorship through fear of an impending war in Etruria, but this passed off, and he had no occasion to leave the city. In this year he carried a law limiting to eighteen months the duration of the censorship, which had formerly lasted for five years. This measure was received with great approbation by the people ; but the censors then in office were so enraged at it, that they removed him from his tribe, and reduced him to the condition of an aerarian. (Liv. iv. 23, 24.) He is named as dictator a third time in b. c. 426 with A. Cornelius Cossus as his magister equitum. It was probably in this year, as we have already stated, that he conquered the Veientines and Fidenates, and took Fidenae, not in his .first dictatorship, though Livy and other ancient authorities speak of a victory gained over these people in each of these years. (Liv. iv. 31—34 ; Oros. ii. 13 ; Diod. xii. 80.)
4. M\ aemilius mam. f. M. n. mamercinus, son of No. 3, was consul in b. c. 410 with C. Valerius Potitus Volusus. (Liv. iv. 53 ; Diod. xiii. 76.) He was also three times consular tribune, first in b. c. 405, a second time in b. c. 403, and a third time in b.c. 401. (Liv. iv. 61, v. 1, 10.)