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MALELAS.

He notices also his eminence as a rhetorician, and says that he was favourable to Christianity ; a statement which has been thought, but we do not see why, inconsistent with the praises he has be­stowed on the heathen philosopher and diviner, Pamprepius [iLLUsJ. The works of Malchus are Jost, except the portions contained in the Excerpta of Constantine [constantinus VII.], and some

•extracts in - Suidas, which are collected and sub­joined to the Bonn edition of the Excerpta. (Pho-tius, Suidas, Eudocia, //. cc. ; Vossius, De Hist. Graecis9\\. 21 ; Cave, Hist. Lift, ad ann. 496 ; Fabric. EM. Graec. vol. vii. p. 540 ; Niebuhr, I. c.)

5. sophista, the sophist. [No. 4.]

6. Of tyre. Malchus was the Hellenized form of the original Syriac name of the philosopher Porphyry. [porphyrius.] The Syriac name Malchus signifies " king;" and the Greek Por- phyrius, Tlop(f>dpios, was perhaps designed to be its equivalent. [J. C. M.]

"malchus cleodemus. [cleodemus.]

MALEATES (MaAcar^s), a surname of Apollo, derived from cape Malea, in the south of Laconia. He had sanctuaries under this name at Sparta and on mount Cynortium. (Paus. iii. 12. § 7, ii. 27, in fin.) [L. S.]

MALELAS, or MALALAS, IOANNES ('Icadvvijs 6 MaAeAa or MaAaAa), a native of An-tioch, and a Byzantine historian. According to Hody he lived in the ninth century ; but it is more probable that he lived shortly after Justinian the Great, as Gibbon very positively asserts (Decline and Fall) vol. vii. p. 61, not. 1, ed. 1815, 8vo.). Those, however, who pretend that he could not have lived after Mohammed, simply because his name in Syriac, (" Malalas,") means '* an orator," the Syrian language being soon superseded by the Arabic, are much mistaken, for the outrooting of the Syriac was no more the work of a century than of a dav. It is unknown who Malelas was. He

i/

wrote a voluminous history, or rather chronicle of the world, with special regard to Roman, Greek, and especially Byzantine history. It originally began with the creation of the world, but the com­mencement is lost, and the extant portion begins with the death of Vulcanus and the accession of liis son Sol, and finishes abruptly with the expe­dition of Marcianus, the nephew of Justinian the Great, against the Cutzinae in Africa. We do not know how much of the end is lost. This history is full of most absurd stories, yet contains also some very curious facts, and is of great importance for the history of Justinian and his immediate pre­decessors. The earlier emperors are treated very briefly ; eight lines seemed sufficient to the author for the reign of Arcadius. The Eastern emperors have more space allotted to them than the Western. The style is barbarous, except where the author copies other historians who wrote well: the Chro-nicon Pascale and Cedrenus are extracted to a large extent. Edmund Ghilmead of Oxford pre­pared the Editio Princeps, from a Bodleian MS., but he died before he accomplished his task, and

•the work was published by Humphrey Hody, Ox. 1691, 8vo. That MS. does not contain the be­ginning of the work, but Chilmead thought that Georgius Hamartolus had copied this portion of the history of Malelas, and consequently supplied the defect from the dry account of Hamartolus. The whole work was divided by Chilmead into 18 books, the first of which, as well as the beginning

MALLEOLUS.

of the second, belong to Hamartolus. Hody added very valuable prolegomena. The Venice reprint of the Oxford edition (1733, fol.) is quite useless. The Bonn edition by L. Dindorf, 1831, 8vo., is a very careful and revised reprint of the Oxford edition, which contains a considerable number of small omissions, misprints, and other trifling de­ fects, though, on the whole, it is a very good one. Dindorf thought that the account of Hamartolus was not identical with that of Malelas, and conse­ quently published it separately, under the title " Anonymi Chronologica ;" he might as well have put the name of Hamartolus on the title. A very good account of Malelas is given by Bentley in his "Epistola ad Joannem Millium," on Malelas and other contemporary writers, which is given in the Oxford and Bonn editions. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. vii. p. 446, &c. ; Cave, Hist. Lit. p. 568 ; Hamberger, Nackrichten von Gelehrten Man- nern.) [ W. P.]

MALEUS (MoAcos), a son of Heracles by Omphale, is said to have been the inventor of the trumpet. (Schol. ad Horn. II. xviii. 219 ; Stat. Thel. iv. 224.) [L. S.]

MALIADES (MaAiaSes vvfjupai), nymphs who were worshipped as the protectors of flocks and of fruit-trees. They are also called MTjAfSes or 'En-t- jiojAiSes. (Theocrit. i. 22, with Valck. note, xiii. 45 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1963.) The same name is also given to the nymphs of the district of the Malians on the river Spercheius. (Soph. PMloci. 725.) [L. S.]

MALLEOLUS, PUBLI'CIUS. 1. M. pub­licius L. p. L. n. malleolus, consul b. c. 232 with M. Aemilius Lepidus, was sent with his col­league against the Sardinians. (Zonar. viii. p. 401, c.) It was this M. Publicius and his brother L. Publicius who built in their aedileship the temple of Flora, instituted the Florales Ludi, and also built the beautiful clivus (Publicius Clivus) which led up the Aventine. They executed these works with the money obtained from the fines which were exacted from the persons who had violated the agrarian laws. Varro and Ovid call them plebeian, but Festus curule aediles. (Tac. Ann. ii. 49; Festus, p. 238, ed. Miiller ; Ov. Fast. v. 279, &c. ; Varro, L. L. v. 158, ed. Miiller.) Their aedileship must have fallen in b. c. 240, as we learn from Velleius Paterculus (i. 14) that the Florales Ludi were instituted in that year. (Com­pare Pighius, Annal. vol. ii. p. 72.)

2. L. publicius L. f. L. n. malleolus, aedile with his brother in B. c. 240, as is mentioned above. We may conclude, from his praenomen being the same as that of their father, that he was the elder brother.

3. publicius malleolus killed his mother, and was in consequence sewn up in a sack, and cast into the sea. This occurred in b. c. 101, and is mentioned as the first instance of this crime which had occurred among the Romans. (Oros. v. 16 ; Liv. Epit. 58 ; Cic. ad Herenn. i. 13.)

4. C. (publicius) malleolus, quaestor to Cu. Dolabella in Cilicia, b. c. 80, died in the pro­vince, and was succeeded in his office by Verres, who also became the tutor of his son. Malleolus had amassed great wealth in the province by plun­dering the provincials, but, according to the state­ment of Cicero, Verres took good care to apply the greater part of it to his own use. Cicero further says, that Malleolus was killed (occisus) by Verres,

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