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ference, that, neglecting the claim of the effeminate Gallienus, the former should assume the purple. Having assigned the management of affairs in the East to one of his sons, Quietus, he set out with the other for Italy. They were encountered by Aureolus on the confines of Thrace and Illyria, de­feated and slain, a. d. 262.


macrianus, junior, the son of the pre­ ceding, shared the power and the fate of his father. Indeed it seems probable that the chief authority was vested in his person, for all the coins hitherto discovered, bearing the name of these pretenders, exhibit the effigy of a young man, while it is certain that the general of Valerian was far ad­ vanced in life at the time of his appointment. But as there is one coin which represents Ma- crianus with a beard, while in all the others he has no beard, it has been conjectured that this coin refers to the elder Macrianus. Moreover, a difficulty arises with regard .to the medals of Alexandria, some of which present the names T. *. IOYN. MAKPIAN02 (Titus Fulvius Junius Macrianus), while others have M. or MA. «i>OT. MAKPIANO5 (Marcus Fulvius Macrianus), as if they represented different individuals. The MSS. of the Augustan historians vary much between Macrianus and Macrimts. Zonaras (xii. 24) uni­ formly distinguishes the father by the latter, and the son by the former appellation. (Trebell. Poll. Trig. Tyrdnn. Vit. Macrian. et Gallien. 1,2,3. See Tillemont on the alleged magical power of Ma­ crianus.) [W. R.]


MACRINUS, a friend of the younger Pliny, to whom the latter addresses many of his letters, but of whose life we have no particulars. (Plin. Ep. ii. 7, iii. 4, vii. 6, 10, viii. 17, ix. 4.)

MACRINUS, Roman emperor, April, a. d. 217 —June, a. d. 218. M. opelius (or opilius) macrinus, afterwards M. opelius sever us ma­crinus, at whose instigation Caracalla was assas­sinated, when marching to encounter the Parthians, was a native of Caesareia in Mauritania, and was born of very humble parents, in the year a. d. 164. Having been recommended to the notice of Plau-tianus, the ^all-powerful favourite of Septimius Severus, he was admitted into his employment, and


narrowly escaped being involved in the destruction of his patron. [plautianus.] Having subse­quently received several appointments of trust in the imperial household, he was at length named praefect of the praetorians, by Caracalla, and dis­charged the duties of that high office with the greatest prudence and integrity, whenever he was permitted ~ to follow the dictates of his own in­clinations uncontrolled. The death of Caracalla took place on the 8th of April, a. d. 217 [cara­calla], and on the llth Macrinus, who had hitherto abstained from coming forward openly, lest he might be suspected of having participated in the plot, having, through the secret agency of his friends, succeeded in gaining over the soldiers by the promise of a liberal donative, was pro­claimed emperor, the title of Caesar being at the same time conferred upon his son Diadumenianus [diadumenianus], He immediately repealed the additional tax imposed by his predecessor on manu­missions and inheritances, and expressed a deter­mination to abolish all unlawful exactions both in the city and in the provinces. The senate, filled with joy on receiving intelligence of the death of their hated tyrant, gladly confirmed the choice of the army.

The, emperor at once marched to meet Artabanus the Parthian, who, burning with rage on account of the dishonour and loss sustained through the treachery of Caracalla, and confident in his own strength, had haughtily rejected all offers of accom­modation, except upon such terms as it was im­possible to accept. The opposing hosts encountered near Nisibis, the Romans were signally defeated, and after having been compelled to purchase the forbearance of the conqueror, by a great sum of money and heavy sacrifices, retired, covered with disgrace, into Syria. At the commencement of the following year a discontented and mutinous spirit began to be openly displayed in the legions, who found the sovereign of their choice far less indul­gent and open-handed than the son of Severus. Taking advantage of these feelings, Julia Maesa [maesa], wh6 was at that time living at Emesa, persuaded the detachments quartered in the vici­nity that her grandson Elagabalus was in reality the child of Caracalla, and having seduced them from their allegiance by lavish offers, induced them to receive the boy into their camp, and to acknow­ledge him as their prince. Macrinus advanced to Antioch to crush the impostor, but after an en­gagement, fought on the 8th of June, A. d. 218, in which great cowardice was displayed on both sides, the fortune of the day having been eventually de­cided by the energy and bold example of Maesa and Soemias, he was compelled to fly, and, casting away his royal robes, reached Chalcedon disguised in mean attire. There he was quickly betrayed, was dragged back, and slain in Cappadocia, in the fifty-fourth or fifty-fifth year of his age, after a reign of fourteen months. His head, and that of his son, who had been discovered and put to death elsewhere, were stuck upon poles, and carried about in triumph. If we can trust Capitolinus, he scarcely deserves our pity, for he is represented by the Augustan historian as haughty, blood-thirsty and inhumanly cruel in the infliction of punish­ments. Great complaints were made of the numbei of unfitting and unworthy persons invested by him with the highest dignities* (Dion Cass. Ixxxviii. 11—-41 ; Capitolin. Macrin.; Aurel. Vict

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