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Joannes II. Palaeologus, on a mission to the Pope Martin V*, preparatory to the. summoning of a general council to determine the union, and died on his return in the beginning of the year 1431. It is not clear whether Macarius Macres was the same or a different person from another Ma­carius, a monk of Xanthopulus, of Jewish origin, and spiritual father to the emperor Manuel Pa­laeologus (Phranza, ii. 1) ; but it is quite clear that he is to be distinguished from Macarius Curu-nas (d Kovpovvas), who also was sent by Joannes Palaeologus to the pope, after the death,of Macarius Macres (Sguropulu8,/?M Concil. Florent. ii. 15,16). Macarius Macres wrote a book against the Latin doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Son, with this title,"Ort to \eyeivKal rov ICtov to Tn/eujua to aryiov eKiropeueaflai cure dvcuyKaiov e err iv d\Aa Kaivorofj.ia Trjs dp0o5o|ou irtcrTews, Quod necessarium non est, sed Innovatio Fidei, dicere et Filio procedere Spiritum Sanctum. This work is extant in MS., and is cited by Allatius in his De Eccles. Occident, et Orient. Perpetua Consens. Some other works by Macarius Hieromonachus are extant in MS., but it is not certain if the writer was our Macarius ; a small piece, De Inventione et Trans-latione S. Euphemii Martyris, is distinctly ascribed to him. (Phrantza, ii. 9, p. 35, ed. Vienna, 1796, pp. 156, 157, ed. Bonn ; Sguropulus, I.e. ; Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. viii. p. 370 ; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 1420.)

14. Magnes. Some extracts from a work en­titled Apologia adversus Theosthenem Evangeliorum Calumniatorem, by a writer whom he termed mag­nates, were given in a Latin version by Fran-ciscus Turrianus, in his tract De Sanctissima Eucharistia contra Volanum Polonum^ Florence, 1575 ; but nothing was at that time known of the writer, of whom there was not any ascertained notice in the writers of the first eight centuries after Christ. Cave found in a MS. work of Ger-manus of Constantinople (he does not say which Germanus), mention of " one M agnes, a presbyter of Jerusalem," who was present at the synod of Antioch, A. d. 265, at which Paul of Samcsata was deposed and excommunicated ; and he iden­tified this Magnes, but without reason, with the writer of the Apologia. Tillemont (Hist, des Em-pereurs, vol. iv. p. 308, &c.) has devoted a section to this obscure writer, and Magnus Crusius of Gottingen has most fully discussed the subject in two disser­tations, Notitia Macarii Magnetis, and De &eo\o-yovfjLevois Macarii Magnetis, 4to. Gottingen,^ 1737 and 1745. The name of the author is found in the various forms, of macarius magnetes (rov WLandplov WLayin/lrov^. macarius magnes (rov Ma/captou 'M.dyvijros)^ and macarius (rov dyiov Maicapiot;), the last showing that Macarius is a name, not a title (" Beatus") ; but it is doubt­ful whether Magnes is to be understood as a name or as a local designation, " the Magnesian ;" and this uncertainty existed as early as the ninth century, when both the writer and his work, which was cited by the Iconoclasts, had become obscure. In a copy of his work, which was found with difficulty by the orthodox of that day* the author was called lepapxfa, "bishop," and was delineated in episcopal vestments ; but his see appears to have been altogether unknown. He is thought by Crusius to have lived near the end of the third or the beginning of the fourth century. There was a Macarius bishop of Magnesia, early



in the fifth century, who was one of the opponents of Chrysostom ; but if Crusius is correct in fixing the age of our Macarius, this must have been a different person.

Macarius wrote, 1. 'AiroKptriKd, JResponsiones, in five books.; inscribed to Theosthenes, and not, as Turrianus and others after him had supposed, written against him, but rather against Porphyry. The work was formerly extant in the library of St. Mark, at Venice, but is not there now. Some extracts are, however, contained in different MSS., and the unpublished Antirrhetica adversus Icono-machos of Nicephorus of Constantinople, contains many passages. The extracts given by Turrianus were reprinted, but with some omissions, by Fa-bricius, in his Delectus Argumentorum et Syllabus Scriptorum de Veritate Religionis Christianae^ and by Galland, in his Bibtiotheca Patrum, vol. iii. ; and some of the fragments preserved by Nicephorus were published by Crusius, in his Dissertations already referred to. Another work of Macarius Magnes, Sermones in Genesin, or Commentarius in: Genesin^ has also perished, with the exception of some fragments, a portion of which were also in­serted by Crusius. (Tillemont, I.e.; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 265 and 403 ; Fabric. Bill. Gi*aec. vol. vii. p. 296, &c.; Galland. Biblioth. Patrum, Proleg. ad vol. iii. c. xiii. ; Ceillier, Auteurs Sacr£s9 vol. iv. 181, &c.)

15. magnus. [No. 1.]

16. martyrii scriptor. A supplement to the A eta Proconsularia Beatorum Martyrum Tha--raci Probi et Andronici, of which Baronius has given a Latin version in his Annales Ecclesiastici, ad ann. 290, is said by him to have been drawn up by Macarius, Felix, and Verus, Christians, who were spectators of the Martyrdom ; but a reference to the original Acta (which were published, with a Latin version, by Emericus Bigotius, Paris, 1680, and by Ruinart in his Acta Martyrum Sincera, and by the Bollandists, in the Ada Sanctorum Octobri^ vol. v. p. 560, &c.) shows that the name of the writer was Marcion (MajwiW), not Macarius.

17. monachus. According to Gennadius of Marseilles, Macarius, a Roman monk, wrote Liber adversus Mathematicos, or as it is described by Rufinus, Opuscula adverszis Fatum et Mathesin, now lost. He lived about the end of the fourth century, and was the intimate friend of Rufinus, who in­scribed to him his Latin version of the Hfpl apx&v of Origen, and his Apologia pro Origene. (Gen­nadius, De Viris Illustr. c. 28 ; Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. vol. viii. p. 372 ; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 401.)

18. The monothelite. [No. 4.]

19. patriarcha. [Nos. 4, 9, 11.]

20. Of philadelphia. [chrysocephalus.]

21. romanus. [No. 17.]

22. rufini amicus. [No. 17.]

Many other Macarii are enumerated by Fabricius, Biblioth. Graec. vol. viii. p. 367, &c. [J. C. M.J

MACATUS, M. LI'VIUS, was appointed by the propraetor M. Valerius, in b. c. 214, com­mander of the town and citadel of Tarentum, and defended both with success against the attacks of Hannibal in that year. But two years afterwards (b. c. 212) the town was taken by a surprise, and Livius fled for refuge into the citadel, which he maintained, notwithstanding all the attempts of Hannibal to dislodge him. In course of time the Roman troops suffered dreadfully, from want of-

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