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876

MACARIUS.

posed and banished. His "EK06<m %roi o

Expositio sive Confessio Fidei ,* and some from his Ify<Kr$«FTjTi«as trpds j8«Krti\e« , Hortatorius ad Imperatorem Sermo; his os dirocrraXels AovKq. irptff&wreptp Kal ftovaxty ev A<pptKfa Ltber ad Lucatn Presbyterum et Monachum in Africa missus; and from one or two other of his pieces, are given in the Concilia, vol. vi. col. 743, 902, &c., ed. Labbe; vol. iii. col. 1 168, 1300, &c., ed. Hardouin ; vol. xi. col. 349, 512, &c., ed. Mansi. (Gave,-Hist. Litt. ad ann. 680 ; Fabric. Bill Groec. vol. viii. 368.) This heretical Macarius of Antioch is not to be con­founded with a saint of later date, but of the same name, " archbishop of Antioch in Armenia," who died an exile at Ghent in Flanders, in the early part of the eleventh century, and of whom an ac­count is . given by the Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, a. d. 10 Aprilis. Of what Antioch this later Macarius was archbishop is not determined. There is no episcopal city of Antioch in Armenia properly so called.

5. antonii discipulus, the disciple of st. antony, or, of pispir (comp. Nos. 1 and 2). Pal-ladius (Hist. Lausiac. c. 25, 26) mentions two dis­ciples of St. Antony, Macarius and Amathas, as resident with and attendant upon that saint, at Mount Pispir, Pispiri, or Pisperi, and as having buried him after his death. These are probably the two brethren mentioned by Athanasius ( Vita S. Antonii, c. 21) as having waited on the aged recluse for the last fifteen years of his Jife. This Macarius of Pispir has been by several writers, both ancient and modern, including Rufinus, and perhaps Theo­doret, among the ancients, and Cave and Pritius among the moderns, confounded with one or other of the Macarii, the Egyptian and the Alexandrian (Nos. 1 and 2) ; but Bollandus (Proleg. ad Vitam S. Anton. c. v. vi. in Acta Sand. a. d. \TJan.) and Tillembnt (Memoires, vol. viii. p. 806) have shown that there are several reasons for distinguish­ing them; and there is great difficulty in reconciling the known circumstances of either of these Macarii with the close attendance on St, Antony given by Macarius of Pispir. To Macarius of Pispir Possin ascribed the Homttiae and Opuscula of Macarius the Egyptian (No. 1).

6. Of athos. [No. 13.]

7. Of the cells, or junior. Macarius, whom Sozomen calls irpsffSvrepov t&v /ceAAtW, "presbyter of the Cells," i. e. of that part of the desert of Nitria in Egypt which was so called, was a herd boy, who having, while feeding his cattle by the Maraeotic lake, accidentally killed one of his com­panions, fled into the wilderness in order to avoid the punishment of his homicide. He was thus led to embrace a solitary life, which he followed for nearly thirty years. This Macarius must not be confounded with Nos. 1, 2, or 5, with whom he appears to have been contemporary. (Sozomen, //. E. vi. 29 ; Pallad. Hist. Lausiac. c. xvii.; Tille-mont, Memoires, vol. viii. p. 575.)

8. chrysocephalus, archbishop of Phila­delphia. [chrysocephalus.]

9. Of constantinople, patriarch of that see, from 1376 to 1379. There was another Macarius patriarch of Constantinople, in the sixteenth cen­tury. (Fabr. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 368.)

10. historicus, the historian. [macareus.] : 11. hierosolymitanus, or of Jerusalem. Two Macarii were bishops of Jerusalem, one in the

MACARIUS.

early part of the fourth century, before that see was raised to the dignity of a patriarchate j the other in the sixth century i

Macarius I. became bishop in A. D. 313 or 314, on the death of Hermon, and died in or before a. d. 333. He was computed to be the thirty-ninth bishop of the see. His episcopate, therefore, coin­cides with one of the most eventful periods in ecclesiastical history. There is extant in Eusebius (De Vita Constantin.'in. 30—32) aiid in Theodoret (H. E. i. 17), a letter from Cohstantine the Great to Macarius, concerning the building of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. Socrates (H.E. i. 17), Sozomen (H. E. ii. 1), and Theodoret (H. E. i. 18), also ascribe to him the discovery, by testing its miraculous efficacy, of the true cross, which had been dug up, with the two on which the thieves had suffered, near the Holy Sepulchre. Macarius was present at the council of Nice (Sozomen, H. E. i. 17; comp. Concilia, vol. i. col. 313, 314, ed. Hardouin) ; and, according to the very doubtful authority of Gelasius of Cyzicus (apud Concilia, col. 417), took part in the disputations against the Arian philoso­phers. He separated himself from the communion of Eusebius, the historian, bishop of Caesareia, who was his ecclesiastical superior, on account of his supposed Arianism. (Sozomen, H.E. ii. 20; Fabric. Bill. Gr. vol. viii. p. 369; Bolland. Acta Sanctor. Martii, vol. ii. p. 34, and Maii, vol. iii. Tractatus Praelim. pp. xvi. xvii.; Tillemont, Mi-moires, vol. vi.)

Macarius II. was first appointed to the see a. d. 544, by the influence of the monks of Neolaura, " the new monastery," on the death of Petrus or Peter ; but his election was disallowed by the em­peror Justinian I., because it was reported that he avowed the obnoxious opinions of Origen, and Eustochius was appointed in his room, who bitterly persecuted the Origenists, who were numerous in the monasteries of Palestine. Eustochius was, however, afterwards deposed, but in what year, or from what cause, is not clear ; and Macarius was restored, after purging himself from suspicion of heresy, by pronouncing an anathema on the opinions of Origen. Victor of Tunes places his restoration in the thirty-seventh year of Justinian (a. d. 563 or 564), and Theophanes in the reign of Justin, I Li who succeeded Justinian in a. d. 567. He died about A. d. 574, and was succeeded by Joannes. A homily, De Inventione Capitis Praecursoris, by Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem, is extant in MS. ; but it is not known by which it was written, though probably by Macarius II. (Evagr. H. E. iv. 37* 39, v. 16 ; Cyril Scyth. Sabae Vita, c. 90, apud Coteler. Eccles. Graec. Monu?n.vo\. iii. p. 373 ; Le Quien, Oriens Christ, vol. iii. col. 235, &c.; Bolland. Acta Sanctor. Mail, vol. iii. Tractat. Praelim. pp. xxviii. xxix. ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 369.)

12. junior. [Nos. 2, 7.]

13. macres, or macra (6 Ma/c/nfs) or macrus (6 Mawpcfo), a monk of Mount Athos, and an intimate friend of George Phranza [phranza], by whose interest he was appointed Hegumenus, or abbot of the monastery of the Almighty (tow Tlw-To/cpaTopos), at Constantinople. He also obtained the dignity of Protosyncellus. He was a strenuous opponent of the Latin church ; and this involved him in serious disputes with Joseph II., patriarch of Constantinople, who was favourable to the union of the churches. Notwithstanding his hostility to the Lathis., Macarius was sent by the emperor

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