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MACARIUS.

2. Of alexandria, contemporary with the foregoing, from whom he is distinguished by the epithet alexandrinus (o* 'AAelai/fyeus), or poli-Ticus (noAm/cos), i. e. urbicus, and sometimes junior. Palladius, who lived with him three years, has given a tolerably long account of him in his Historia Lausiaca, c. 20 ; but it chiefly consists of a record of his supposed miracles. He was a native of Alexandria where he followed the trade of a confectioner, and must not be confounded with Macarius, the presbyter of Alexandria, who is men­tioned by Socrates (H. E. i. 27) and Sozomen (H. E. ii. 22), and who was accused of sacrilegious violence towards Ischyras [athanasius]. Our Macarius forsook his trade to follow a monastic life, in which he attained such excellence, that Palladius (ibid. c. 19) says that, though younger than Macarius the Egyptian, he surpassed even him in the practice of asceticism. Neither the time nor the occasion of his embracing a solitary life is known, for the Macarius mentioned by Sozomen (IT. E. vi. 29) appears to be a different person. Tillemont has endeavoured to show that his retire­ment took place not later than A. d. 335, but he founds his calculation on a misconception of a passage of Palladius. Macarius was ordained priest after the Egyptian Macarius, i. e. after A. d. 340, and appears to have lived chiefly in that part of the desert of Nitria which, from the number of the solitaries who had their dwellings there, was termed " the Cells " (" Cellae," or " Cellulae," ra KeAAia) ; but frequently visited, perhaps for a time dwelt, in other parts of the great Lybian wilder­ness, and occasionally at least of the wilderness be­tween the Nile and the Red Sea. Galland says he became at length archimandrite of Nitria, but does not cite his authority, which was probably the MS. inscription to his Regula given below, and which is of little value. Philippus Sidetes calls jiini a teacher and catechist of Alexandria, but with what correctness seems very doubtful. Va­rious anecdotes recorded of him represent him as in company with the other Macarius (No. 1) and .with St. Antony. Many miracles are ascribed to him, most of which are recorded by Palladius either as having been seen by himself, or as resting on the authority of the saint's former companions, but they are frivolous and absurd. Macarius shared the exile of his namesake [No. 1] in the persecution which the Arians carried on against the orthodox. He died, according to Tillemont's calculation, in A. d. 394, but according to Fabricius, in A. d. 404, at the age of 100, in which case he must have been nearly as old as Macarius the Egyptian. He is commemorated in the Roman Calendar on the 2d January, and by the Greeks on the 19th January. Socrates describes him as characterized by cheerful­ness of temper and kindness to his juniors, qualities which induced many of them to embrace an ascetic life. (Socrat. //. E. iv. 23, 24 ; Sozom. H. E. iii. 14, vi. 20 ; Theodoret. H. E. iv. 21; Rufin. H.E. ii. 4; and apud Heribert Rosweyd, De Vita et Verbis Senior, ii. 29 ; Pallad. Hist. Lausiac. c. 20; Bolland. Ada Sanctor. a. d. 2 Januar. • Tillemont, MemoireS) vol. viii. p. 626, &c.)

To this Macarius are ascribed the following works • —* I. Regula S. Macarii qui habuit sub Ordinatione sua quinque Millia Monackorum. This Regula, which is extant in a Latin version, consists of thirty " Capita" and must be distinguished from another, which, is also extant in a Latin version.

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MACARIUS.

under the title of Regula SS. Serapionis^ Macarii, Paphnutii et alterius Macarii; to which the first of the two Macarii contributed capp. v—viii., and the second ("alter Macarius") capp. xiii.—xvi. Tillemont and others consider these two Macarii to be the Egyptian and the Alexandrian, and ap­parently with reason. The Regula S. Macarii, which some have supposed to be the Epistola of Macarius the Egyptian [No. 1 ] mentioned by Gennadius, is ascribed to the Alexandrian by S. Benedict of Anagni, Holstenius, Tillemont, Fabri­cius, and Galland. Cave hesitates to receive it as genuine. II. Epistola B. Macarii data ad Mona* chos. A Latin version of this is subjoined to the Regula; it is short and sententious in style. The Regula was first printed in the Historia Monasterii, S. Joannis Reomaensis (p. 24) of the Jesuit Rouerus (Rouviere), 4to. Paris. 1637 ; and was reprinted together with the Epistola, in the Codex Regularum of Holstenius (4to. Rome, 1661), and in the Biblio-theca Patrum of Galland, vol. vii. fol. Venice, 1770. III. Tou dyiov Maicapiov rov 'AA€|a*>-Spe'ws Aoyos irepl e£o5ou ^v^tjs SiKatwv Kal a/xap-ru\<av to ttws xwpi^ovrai e/c tou (Totfjuaroy, Kal ttws ettrti/, Sancti Macarii Alexandrini Sermo de Exitu Animae Justorum et Peccatorum: quomodo separantur a Corpore, et in quo Statii manent. This was printed, with a Latin version, by Cave (who, however, regarded it as the forgery of some later Greek writer), in the notice of Macarius in his Historia Litteraria ad ann. 373 (vol. i. fol. Lond. 1688, and Oxford, 1740—1742); and was again printed, more correctly, by Tollius, in his Insignia Itineris Italici, 4to. Utrecht, 1696. Tol­lius was not aware that it had been printed by Cave. It is given, with the other works of Ma­carius of Alexandria, in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland. In one MS. at Vienna it is ascribed to Alexander, an ascetic and disciple of Macarius. Cave is disposed to ascribe to Macarius of Alex­andria the Homiliae of Macarius the Egyptian [No. 1]. (Cave, I. c.; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. viii. p. 365 ; Holsten. Codex Regularum, vol. i. pp. 10—14,18—21, ed. Augsburg, 1759 ; Galland, Biblioth. Pair. Proleg. to vol. vii. ; Tillemont, Memoires, vol. viii. pp. 618, 648 ; Ceillier, Auteurs Sacres, vol. vii. p. 712, &c.)

3. Of ancyra, of which city he was metropo­litan. Macarius lived in the earlier part of the fifteenth century, and was author of a work against the Latin church and its advocates, entitled Kara rrjs t£v Aarlvwv «a«:o5o|tas Kal Kara BapAaa/x Kal 'A/aj/SiWu, Adversus Maligna Latinorum Dog­mata et contra Barlaam et Acindynum. The work is extant only in MS., but has been cited in several places by Allatius in his De Eccles. Occident, et Orient, perpet. Consensione. Allatius characterizes the work as trifling and full of absurdities ; but Cave considers that the citations given by Allatius himself by no means justify his censure. (Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 1430; Fabricius, Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 367.)

4. Of antioch. Macarius was patriarch of Antioch in the seventh century. He held the doctrine of the Monothelites ; and having attended the sixth general or third Constantinopolitan council (a. D. 680, 681), and there boldly avowed his heresy, affirming that Christ's will was " that of a God-man" (Secwfyu/c^j/) ; and having further boldly declared that he would rather be torn limb frpjn limb than renounce his .opinions, he was de-

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