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872

LYSIPPUS.

11. 9. § 6). 3. Zeus Nemeus, in an erect position, at Argos (Paus. ii. 20. § 3). 4. Zeus attended by the Muses (Paus. i. 43. § 6). 5. Poseidon, at Corinth (Lucian, Jup. Trag. 9, vol. ii. p. 652, Wetst.). 6. Dionysus, in the sacred grove on Mt. Helicon (Paus. ix. 30. § 1). 7. Eros, at Thespiae (Paus. ix. 27. § 3 ; comp. Sillig in the Amaltltea,) vol. iii. p. 299).

As above stated, his favourite mythological subject was Hercules. The following are some of his statues of that hero :—8. A colossal Hercules resting from his labours, in a sitting posture, at Tarentum, whence it was carried to Rome by Fabius Maximus, when he took Tarentum (Strab. vi. p. 278, b.; Plut. Fab. Max. 22). It was afterwards transferred to Byzantium (Nicet. Stat. Constant. 5. p.. 12). It is frequently copied on gems. 9. Hercules, yielding to the power of Eros, and deprived of his weapons. The statue is described in an epigram by Geminus (Antli. Pal. App. ii. p. 655 ; Antli. Plan. iv. 103). This also often appears on gems. 10. A small statue (kirtrpa-irg£tos), representing the deified hero as sitting at the banquet of the gods, described by Statius (Silv. iv. 6) and Martial (ix. 44). The celebrated Belvedere Torso is most probably a copy of this (Meyer, Kunstgescliichte, vol. ii. p. 114 ; Heyne, Prise. Art.- Op. ex Epigr. illust. p. 87). 11. Her­cules in the forum at Sicyon (Paus. ii. 9. § 7).

12. There were originally at Alyzia in .Arcadia, and afterwards at Rome, a set of statues by Lysippus, representing the labours of Hercules (Strab. x. p. 459, c.). Perhaps one of this group may have been the original of the Farnese Hercules of Glycon, which is undoubtedly a copy of a work of Lysippus. (glycon; Miiller, Arclidol. d. Kunst, § 129, n. 2.)

To his mythological works must be added:—

13. A celebrated statue of Time, or rather Oppor­tunity (Katpos ; Callistr. Stat. p. 698, ed. Jacobs, with Welcker's Excursus). 14. Helios in a quad­riga, at Rhodes (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8, s. 19. § 6). 15. A Satyr at Athens (Hid.).

Of those of his statues which were neither my­thological nor strictly portraits, the following are mentioned:—16. A bather or athlete, scraping himself with a strigil, which was placed by M. Agrippa in front of his baths, and was so admired by the emperor Tiberius that he transferred it to his own chamber ; the resentment of the people, however, compelled him to restore it (Plin. I. c.). From the way in which Pliny speaks of this statue, it may be conjectured that it was intended by Lysippus to be a nonnal specimen of his art, like the Doryphorus of Polycleitus. 17. An intoxicated female flute-player. 18. Several statues of athletes (Paus. vi. 1. § 2, 2. $ 1, 4. § 4, 5. § 1, 17. § 2).

19. A statue of Socrates (Diog. Laert. ii. 43).

20. Of Aesop (Antli. Graec.. iv. 33). 21. Of Praxilla* (Tatian» adv. Graec. 52.)

We pass on to his actual portraits, and- chiefly those of Alexander. In this department of his art Lysippus kept true to his great principle, and imitated nature so closely as even to indicate Alexander's personal defects, such as the inclination of his head sidewards, but without impairing the beauty and heroic expression of the figure. He made statues of Alexander at all periods of life, and in many different positions. Alexander's edict is well known, that no one should paint him but Apelles, and no one make his statue but Lysippus.

LYSISTRATUS.

The most celebrated of these statues is that in which Alexander was represented with a lance. (Plut. de Isid. 24), which was considered as a sort of companion to the picture of Alexander wielding a thunderbolt, by Apelles. The impression which it produced upon spectators was described by an epigram afterwards affixed to it, —

, Zeu, <ri) 5s

Tav vtt' euol

(Plut. de Akx. Virt. ii. 2, Alex. 4 ; Tzetz. GUI. viii. 426.) The rest of his portraits of Alexander are described by Miiller (Archaol. d. Kunst, § 129, n. 2). To the same class belongs his group of the chieftains who fell in the battle at the Granicus. There are still some other works of Lysippus of less importance, which are described by the his­torians of Greek art. (Sillig, Cat. s.v.; Meyer, Kunstgeschichte; Hirt, Gesclt. d. Bild. Kunst; Nagler, Kiinstler- Lexicon.)

2. A painter in encaustic, of the Aeginetan school, who .placed on his paintings the word ej/e'/cae*'. (Plin. xxxv. 11. s. 19.)

3. A statuary of Heracleia, the son of Lysippus, who is known from an inscription on the base of a statue of Apollo at Delos : — AHOAAriNI AY-

2inno2 AT2innor hpakaeios ehoiei.

(Welcker, in the Kunsillati, 1827, No. 83.) [P. S.] LYSIS (Avaris). 1. An eminent Pythagorean philosopher, who, driven out of Italy in the per­secution of his sect, betook himself to Thebes, and became the teacher of Epaminondas, by whom he was held in the highest esteem. He died and was buried at. Thebes. (Paus. ix. 13. § 1 ; Aelian. V. H. iii. .17; Diod. Exc. de Virt. et Vit. p. 556 ; Plut. de Gen. Socr. 8, 13, 14, 16 ; Piog. Laert. viii. 39 ; Nepos, Epam. 2 ; lamblich. Vit. Pyth. 35.) There was attributed to him a work on Pythagoras and his doctrines, and a letter to Hipparchus, of which the latter is undoubtedly spurious ; and Diogenes says that some of the works ascribed to Pythagoras were really written by Lysis.

There is a chronological difficulty respecting him, .inasmuch as he is stated to have been the disciple of Pythagoras, and also the teacher of Epaminondas. Dodwell (de Cycl. Vet. p. 148) attempted to show the consistency of the two statements; but Bentley (Answer to Boyle) con­tends that the ancient writers confounded two philosophers of this name. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. i. p. 851.)

2. A disciple of Socrates. (Diog. Laert. ii. 29.)

3. A poet of the hilaroedic style, was the suc­ cessor of Simus, the inventor of that species of poetry the composers of which were at first called 2i/*<j>5oi, from Simus, and afterwards Avo-itpdoi and Ma7^5ot, from Lysis and Magus. (Strab. xiv. p. 648, a. ; Ath. xiv. p. 620, d., iv. p. 182, c. ; Bode, Gesch. der Lyrisch. Dichtkunst, vol. ii. p. 469.) [P.S.] LYSISTRA'TIDES, artist. [leostratides.] L YSIS'TRATUS, of Sicyon, statuary, was the brother of Lysippus, with whom he is placed by Pliny at the 114th Olympiad (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19.) He devoted himself entirely to the making of portraits, and, if we may believe Pliny, his portraits were nothing more than exact likenesses, without any ideal beauty. (Hie et similitudinem reddere instituit : ante eum qttam pulcherrimas facere studebant.) He was the first who took a cast of

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