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870

LYSIMACHUS.

and endeavour to check the rising spirit of dis­affection. The two monarchs—the last survivors of the warriors and companions of Alexander, and both of them above seventy years of age—met in the plain of Corus (Corupedion); and in the battle that ensued Lysimachus fell by the hand of Mala-con, a native of Heracleia (b. c. 281). His body was given up to his son, Alexander, and interred by him at Lysimachia. (Memnon, c. 8; Justin. xvii. i. 2; App. Syr. 62; Paus. i. 10. §§ 4, 5 j Oros. iii. 23; Euseb. Arm. p. 156.)

The age of Lysimachus at the time of his death is variously stated: Hieronymus of Cardia, pro­bably the best authority, affirms that he was in his 80th year (ap. Lzician. Macrob. 11). Justin, on the contrary, makes him 74 ; and Appian (/. c.) only 70 years old ; but the last computation is certainly below the truth. He had reigned 25 years from the period of his assuming the title of king, and had governed the combined kingdoms of Macedonia and Thrace during a period of five years and six months* (Euseb. Arm. I.e.)

The accounts transmitted to us of Lysimachus are too fragmentary and imperfect to admit of our forming a very clear idea of his personal character ; but the picture which they would lead us to con­ceive is certainly far from a favourable one: harsh, stern, and unyielding, he appears to have been incapable of the generosity which we find associated in Pyrrhus and Demetrius, with courage and daring at least equal to his own ; while a sordid love of money distinguished him still more strikingly from his profuse, but liberal contemporaries. Even his love for Amastris, one of the few softer traits presented by his character, did not prevent him from sacrificing her to the views of his interested ambition. Self-aggrandisement indeed seems to have bee*n at all times his sole object; and if his ambition was less glaringly conspicuous than that of some of his contemporaries, from being more re­strained by prudence, it was not the less his sole motive of action, and was even farther removed from true greatness.

COIN OP LYSIMACHUS.

Lysimachus was by his various wives the father of a numerous family: Justin indeed states (xvii. 2) that he had lost fifteen children before his own death ; but the greater part of these (if they ever really existed) are wholly unknown. Besides Agathocles, whose fate has been already mentioned, we hear of six children of Lysimachus who survived him ; viz. 1. Alexander, who, as well as Agatho­cles, was the offspring of an Odrysian woman named Macris. (Polyaen. vi. 12 ; Paus. i. 10. § 5.) 2. Arsinoe, the wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus, a daughter of Lysimachus and Nicaea; 3. Eury-dice (probably also a daughter of Nicaea), married to Antipater, the son of Cassander. 4. Ptolemy. 5. Lysimachus. 6. Philip. The three last were all sons of Arsinoe, and. shared for a time their mother's fortunes. One other daughter is men­tioned as married, during her father's lifetime, to Dromichaetes, king of the Getae. (Paus. i. 9. § 6.)

LYSIMACHUS.

The coins of Lysimachus are very numerous, and those in gold and silver remarkable for the beauty of their workmanship. They all bear on the obverse the head of Alexander, represented with horns, as the son of Ammon. The reverse has a figure of Pallas seated, and holding in her hand a victory. [E. H. B.]

LYSl'MACHUS, literary. 1. A comic poet, mentioned by Lucian, who ridicules him for the absurd pedantry with which, though born in Boeotia, he affected to carry the Attic use of T for 2 to an extreme, using not only such words as T€TTa/7c£/c0j>ra, rtf/ucpou, Karrirfpov, Karrv/^a and iriTTo.i'i but even ^atrikirra. (Lucian, Jud. Vocal. i. p. 90 ; Meineke, Hist. Grit. Com. Graec. p. 493.) Nothing more is known of this Lysimachus, and possibly the name is fictitious.

2. A lyric poet of only moderate worth, jueAo-ttoios etfreAifc, who, as we are informed by Suidas and Harpocration, was mentioned by the orator Lycurgus in his speech Trepl Sioi/ojo-ews.

3. One of the tutors of Alexander the Great., was an Acarnanian by birth. Though a man of very slender accomplishments, he ingratiated him­self with the royal family by calling himself Phoe­nix, and Alexander Achilles, and Philip Peleus; and by this sort of flattery, he obtained the second place among the young prince's tutors. (Plut.Ale%> 5.)

4. Another philosopher of the same name, and of a similar character, is mentioned by Athenaeus as the tutor and courtier of king Attalus, respect­ing whose education he wrote books full of all kinds of flattery. He was the disciple of Theo-dorus, according to Callimachus, or of Theophras-tus, according to Hermippus. (Ath. vi. p. 252.)

5. Of Alexandria, a distinguished grammarian, frequently cited by the scholiasts and other writers, who mention his n<£otoi and his ffvva.ytoyr) ®rj§ai-ko$v 7ra/>a8o£wjf. (Ath. iv. p. 158, c. d.; Scliol. ad Apoll. Khod. i. 558, iii. 1179, ad Soph. Oed. Col. 91, ad Eurip. Andr. 880, Hec. 892, PJioen. 26, Hipp. 545, ad Find. PytTi. v. 108, Istli. iv. 104, ad Lycopli. 874 ; Apost. Prov. xvii. 25 ; Plut. tie Fluv. 18 ; Hesych. s. v. ^Kvpos.) He is perhaps also the author of the AiyvirriaKd cited by Jose-phus (c. Ap. i. 34, ii. 2, 14, 33), and perhaps may even be identified with Lysimachus of Gyrene, who wrote -Trepl irorrjTwv. (Proleg. ad Hes. Opp. p. 30 ; Tzetz. Chil. vi. 920.) A writer of the same name is mentioned by Porphyry as the author of two books, Trepi ttjs *Ecf)6pov k\otttjs. (Euseb. Praep. Evang.-x.. 3.) Respecting the time of Lysimachus the Alexandrian, we only know that he was younger than Mnaseas, who flourished about b. c. 140. (Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p« 464, ed. Wester-mann ; Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. i. p. 384, vol. ii. p. 129.)

6. A writer on agriculture, often referred to by Varro, Columella, and Pliny ; and perhaps the same as Lysimachus who is mentioned in the SchoL ad Nic. Alex. 376, and Plin. H. N, xxv.

7 rp s i

'lysi'maghus (Av(r4w), of Cos, a phy­ sician, who wrote a commentary on the works of the Hippocratic Collection in three books, addressed to Cydias, a follower of Herophilus, and another in four books, addressed to Demetrius (Erotian. Gloss. Hippocr. p. 10), neither of which is now extant. If this Demetrius was the physician born at Apameia, Lysimachus probably lived in the third and second centuries B. c, [W. A. G.]

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