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all other ancients, is the indescribable gracefulness and elegance which pervade all of them, without in the least impairing their power and energy ; and this gracefulness was considered as so peculiar a feature in all Lysias' productions, that Dionysius thought it a fit criterion by which the genuine works of Lysias might be distinguished from the spurious works that went by his name. (Dionys. Jjys. 10, &c., 3, Demosfh. 13, Dinarcli. 7; comp. dc. Brut. 9,16 ; Quintil.ix. 4. § 17,xii. 10. § 24.) The manner in which Lysias treats his subjects is equally deserving of high praise. (Dionys. Lys. 15—-19; Hermogen. De Form. Oral. ii. p. 490.) It is, therefore, no matter of surprise to hear that among the many orations he wrote for others, two only are said to have been unsuccessful. (Plut. /. c. p. 836.)
- The extant orations of Lysias are contained in the collections of Aldus, H. Stephens, Reiske, Dukas, Bekker, and Baiter and Sauppe. Among the separate editions, we mention those of J. Tay-lor (London, 1739, 4to. with a full critical apparatus and emendations by Markland), C. Foertsch (Leipzig, 1829, 8vo.), J. Franz (Munich, 1831, 8vo., in which the orations are arranged in their chronological order); compare J. Franz, Dissertatio deLysiaOratore Attico Graece'scripta^ Norimbergae, 1828, 8vo.; L. Hoelscher, De Lysiae Oratoris Vita et Dictione, Berlin, 1837, 8vo., and De Vita et Scriptis Lysiae Oratoris Commentatio, Berlin, 1837, 8vo. ; Westermann, Gesch. der Griech. Beredtsam-keit, §§ 46, 47, and Beilage, iii. pp. 278—288.
There are some other persons of the name of Lysias, who come under the head of literary characters. 1. Lysias of Tarsus, an epicurean philosopher, who usurped the tyrannis in his native place on the occasion of his being raised to the priesthood of Heracles, and afterwards distinguished himself by his indulgence in luxuries and cruelty. (Athen. v. p. 215.) 2. A person who is one of the interlocutors in Plutarch's treatise de Musica. 3. A sophist, who was, according to Taylor, the author of the IpwTiKcS, which are attributed by some of the ancients to the orator Lysias. (Taylor, Vit. Lys. p. 154.) This sophist may be the one mentioned by Demosthenes (c. Neaer. p.-351. [L. S.]
LYSIAS, a sculptor of the time of Augustus, for whom he executed a great and highly valued group, representing Apollo and Diana in a four-horse chariot, which Augustus placed in the chapel erected by him to the memory of his father, Octa-vius, on the Palatine hill. Pliny says that the group was of one piece of marble ; but similar statements of his respecting other groups, which are still extant, the Laocoon for instance, have been disproved by an examination of the works themselves: we may therefore suspect his accuracy in this instance. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 10; Meyer, Kunstgeschichte> vol. iii. pp. 38, 39.) [P. S.]
LYSICLES (AvffiK\ijs). 1. Possibly a son of Abronychus, was sent out by the Athenians, with four colleagues, in command of twelve ships for raising money among their allies, b. c. 428. He was attacked, in an expedition up the plain of the Maeander, by some Carians and Samiahs of Anaea, and fell with many of his men. (Thuc. iii. 19.) Possibly this Lysicles is the same with Lysicles
it appears, after the death of Pericles married As- pasia. By her he had a son, Poristes, and through her instructions, says Aeschines the disciple of Socrates, he attained the highest importance. (Ap. Plut. Per. c. 24 ; Schol. ad Plat. Meneoc. p. 235 ; compare Harpocr. and Hesych. s. v. ^irpoSart&X'ris ; Schol. ad Aristoph. Eq. I. c.) [A. H. C.]
2. One of the commanders of the Athenian army at the battle of Chaeroneia, b. c. 338, was subsequently condemned to death, upon the accusation of the orator Lycurgus. (Diod. xvi. 85, 88.) The speech which Lycurgus delivered against Lysicles is referred to by Harpocration (s. vv. errl ArjA^ and Ae^aScja).
LYSICRATES (AvffiKpdr^ an Athenian, whose name has become celebrated by means of his beautiful choragic monument. The custom of giving a bronze tripod as a prize to the choragus in the dramatic exhibitions, and of then dedicating the tripod to some divinity, is described in the " Dictionary of Antiquities," s. v. choregia. The most usual manner of dedicating the tripod was by placing it on the summit of a small building erected for the express purpose of receiving it. The choragic monument of Lysicrates is such an erection. From a square base arises a circular building, consisting of six Corinthian columns, connected by a wall, and supporting a flat cupola of one piece of marble, from the centre of which rises a beautiful flower-like ornament, which spreads out at the summit so as to afford a base for the tripod, the marks of which are still visible upon it. The details are of surpassing beauty, and can only be appreciated from a good drawing. The best engraving, or rather set of engravings, of it are given by Mauch (Neue Systematische Darstellung d. Ar~ chiteJctonischen Ordnungen, 3e Auflage, taf. 54 — • 57). The following is the inscription on the architrave :
'Aftyvcuos eSi'Scuncc, E JaiVeros
(Bockh, Corp. Tnscr. 221.) The archonship of Evaenetus was in 01. cxi. 2, b. c. 335.
The building is vulgarly called the Lantern of Demosthenes, who is said to have erected it with the object of studying in the seclusion of its in terior. Not only is this tradition unsupported by any authority, and disproved by the inscription, but it is clear that the interior of the building, which is not quite six feet in diameter, was not applied to any use, and had, in fact, no entrance. It is now open, having at some period been broken into, probably in search of treasure. (Stuart and Revett, Antiquities of Athens, vol. i. p. 139 ; Hirt, Geschichte d. Baukunst bei den Alten, vol. ii. p. 2(5.) [P. S.]
LYSIDICE (Au<n5//o7), a daughter of Pelops, married to Mestor, by whom she had a daughter, Hippothoe (Apollod. ii. 4. § 5). Others call her the wife of Alcaeus, and mother of Amphitryon (Paus. viii. 14. $ 2). A third account is given by the scholiast on Pindar (Ol. vii. 49). A second personage of the name is mentioned by Apollodorus (ii. 7. §8). [L.S.]
LYSIMACHE (Aucn^a'x*?), a daughter of