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lace developed itself purely only in those countries where, as in Crete, the Dorians were prevented from mixing with other races. In proportion as they amalgamated with the conquered the Dorian character disappeared, as, for instance, in Corinth, Argos, and Messenia. If therefore Sparta owed to Lycurgus the confirmation of her political ascend-,ency over her subjects, and was thus enabled to preserve and develope the original Dorian cha-.racter, it is explained how Lycurgus could be regarded as the originator of things which in reality he was only accessory in upholding.

5. There is one consideration more to corroborate the view which we take of Lycurgus. We have just mentioned, that the institutions of Sparta were originally not peculiar to her alone, but were common to the whole Dorian race. Muller, in his Dorians^ has proved this point beyond all doubt. He adduces Pindar (iii. 1. § 7), who mentions (Pyth. i. 61) that Hieron the Syracusan wished to establish the new city of Aetna upon the genuine Doric principles. He founded it "with heaven-built freedom, according to the laws of the Hyllean model" i.e. after the example of the Spartan con­stitution ; "for the descendants of Pamphilus and of the Heradeidae, who dwell under the brow of Taygetus, wish always to retain the Doric institutions of Aegimius." This passage is as decisive as can be to prove that the laws of Sparta were considered the true Doric institutions. (Comp. Hermann, Pol. Ant. § 20, 1.) Muller has enlarged upon this subject by tracing remnants of the same Doric institutions in other Doric states, where, as we have seen, they are found effaced more or less, through the admission of strangers to the right of citizenship. But in Crete these institutions were preserved in their full purity to such an extent, that the ancients unanimously made Lycurgus borrow part of his laws from his Cretan kinsmen. (Strab. x. p. 737, a.; Hoeck, Kreta, iii. p. 11.) There existed in that island Helots (called a<pa/«e£-rcu or jUPcwrat), subject provincials (virijicooi), sys-sitia, all nearly on the same principles as in Sparta. The Cretan education resembled that of Sparta in every feature, in short, the whole aspect of political, and still more that of social life, was the same in both countries, whence Plato called their laws a8eA<poi>s vofjiovs. (Plat, de Leg. iii.p. 683, a.; comp. Arist. Pol. ii. 7. § 1.) But, far from discovering in this circumstance a proof that Sparta borrowed her laws from Crete, we recognise in those of the latter country only another independent develop­ment of the Doric institutions (Herm. Pol. Ant. § 20,10), without however denying that of which we have no positive proof, that Lycurgus in his reform may have had in view the similar organisation of the kindred tribe. (Mull. Dor. iii. 1. § 8.) For this purpose it can be indifferent to us whether, as Muller thinks, the Dorians migrated into Crete from the district of mount Olympus long before the Trojan war, so that Minos would be a Dorian, and his legislation founded on Doric principles (Mull, iii. 1. 9), or whether the Dorians only came into Crete sixty, or eighty years after their conquest of Peloponnesus under Pollis and Althaemenes (Diod. iv. 60, \. 80), according to Hoeck (Kreta^ ii. p. 15).

To sum up our opinion in a few words, we would say that, although we do not deny the historical reality of Lycurgus, or his character as a legislator of Sparta, yet we consider that every thing essential



in the Spartan constitution is in its .origin inde­pendent of Lycurgus. His merit consists partly in fixing the institutions he found, or in re-establish­ing older regulations, which began to give way, partly in restoring peace by his personal influence, and aiding in establishing or restoring that equal division of property, and that subjection of the conquered under the conquerors, which were es­sential for preserving the Doric character in its purity.

The ancient literature on Lycurgus is chiefly contained in Plutarch's Lycurgus and Instituta La-conica; Xenophon, de Republica Lacedaemonior. (excellent edition by Fr. Haase, 1833); Aristotle's Politics^ ii. 6. Comprehensive collections of all the materials are those of Nic. Cragius (de Republ. Lacedaem. Genev. 1593), and T. Meursius (Mis­cellanea Laconica, Amst. 1661, and De Regno Laconico, Ultraj. 1687 ; also in Gronov. Thesaur). Of more recent date are Arnold's 2nd appen­dix to his Thucydides, on the Spartan Consti­tution; a review of this by G. C. Lewis, in the Philological Museum, vol. ii. ; Manso's Sparta^ 1800; Miiller's Dorians; Wachsmuth, Hdlen. Alterth. § 55 ; Hermann's Political Antiq., where, § 23, the whole literature is given at full length ; and Grote's History of Greece^ vol. ii. c. 6. [W. I.]

LYCURGUS (AvKoZpyos). ]. An Athenian, son of Aristolaidas, was the leader of the high oli­garchical party, or the party of the plain, while those of the coast and the highlands were headed respectively by, Megacles, the Alcmaeonid, and Peisistratus. The government having been usurped by Peisistratus, in b. c. 560, Megacles and Lycur­gus coalesced and drove him out in b. c. 554. But they then renewed their dissensions with one another, and the consequence was the restoration of Peisistratus, in b. c. 548, by marriage with the daughter of Megacles. He treated the lady, how­ever, as only nominally his wife, and the Alcmaeo-nidae, indignant at the insult, again made common cause with Lycurgus, and expelled Peisistratus for the second time, in b. c. 547. (Her. i. 59, &c.)

-2. A Lacedaemonian, who, though not of the royal blood, was chosen king, in b. c. 220, together with Agesipolis III., after the death of Cleomenes; in the words of Polybius, "by giving a talent to each of the Ephori, he became a descendant of Heracles and king of Sparta." It was not long before he deposed his colleague and made himself sole sovereign, though under the control of the Ephori. Placed on the throne by the party favour­able to Aetolia, he readily listened to the instiga­tions of Machatas, the Aetolian envoy, to make war on Philip V. of Macedon, and the Achaeans. Having invaded Argolis and taken several towns, he laid siege to the fortress named Athenaeum, in the district of Belbina, claimed by the Megalopo-litans as their territory, and took it in consequence of the dilatory conduct of Aratus, to whom it looked for succour, b. c. 219. .: In the same year he barely escaped with his life from the conspiracy of cheilon, and fled for refuge to Pellene on the western frontier of Laconia. . In b. c. 218 he made an incursion into Messenia, simultaneously with the invasion of Thessaly by Dorimachus, the Aeto­lian, in the hope of drawing Philip away from the siege of Palus in Cephallenia ; but Philip, while he himself invaded Aetolia, desired Eperatus, the Achaean general, to go to ,the relief of the Messe-nians. Lycurgus effected little in Messenia, and

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