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gfinus in B. c. 186, the year that was rendered memorable by the detection of the Bacchanalian societies at Rome. So great was the alarm and confusion caused by this discovery, and by the severe measures adopted by the senate in consequence, that the praetors were compelled to suspend all judicial proceedings for the space of thirty days. (Liv. xxxix. 6, 8, 18.)
9. P. (LiciNius) lucullus, tribune of the people b.c. 110. He combined with one of his colleagues, L. Annius, to procure their joint re-election, but this was opposed by the rest of the tribunes,. and their dissensions had the effect of preventing the elections of magistrates from taking place during the whole remainder of the year. (Sail. Jug. 37.)
10. L. licinius lucullus, was praetor urba-nus in b. c. 67 ; in which office he displayed a remarkable instance of moderation and mildness of disposition. The consul Acilius Glabrio had haughtily ordered his lictors to destroy the curule chair of Lucullus, because the latter had omitted to rise up on seeing him pass by ; but the praetor, instead of resenting the insult, continued to administer his judicial functions standing, and his colleagues, to show their approbation of his conduct, imitated his example. The same disposition led him at the expiration of his office to decline the government of a province, that he might not share in the obloquy so generally incurred by the Roman governors. (Dion Cass. xxxvi. 24.)
LUDIUS, a Roman painter, in the time of Augustus, who, as Pliny tells us, was the first to adorn the walls of rooms with landscapes representing villas and porticoes, gardens, groves, hills, ponds, straits, rivers, shores, &c., according to the pleasure of his employers (qualia quis optaret), animated with figures of persons walking, sailing, and riding, or engaged in fishing, fowling, and gathering the vintage, and sometimes with scenes still more interesting and agreeable to the taste of that age. The landscape paintings on the walls of houses in Herculaneum and Pompeii may be safely taken as specimens of this style (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 10. s. 37). In the same passage, according to the reading of the common editions, Pliny speaks of a much more ancient paintei of the same name, who decorated the temple of Juno at Ardea, for which work he received the freedom of the city, and his memory was preserved by the following inscription in the temple, written in ancient Latin letters: —-
" Dignis digna loca picturis condecoravit, " Reginae Junoni1* supremi conjugi' templum ; " Marcus Ludius Helotas Aetolia oriundus ; 44 Quern nunc et post semper ob artem hanc Ardea laudat.
But the MSS. give no authority for the name Ludius at all. The passage is utterly corrupt. Sillig made a very ingenious attempt, in his Cata-logus, to restore the true reading ; and . again in his edition of Pliny, where the line now stands
" Plautiu* Marcus Cloeetas Alalia exoriundus,"
than which, certainly, no better reading "has yet been made out. (See Sillig, Catal. Artif. s. v. ; and Notes to his edition of Pliny.) [P. S.]
LUNA, the moon. The sun and the moon were worshipped both by Greeks and Romans, and among the latter the worship of Luna is said to have been introduced by the Sabine T. Tatius, in the time of Romulus (Varro, de Ling. Lat. v. 74 ; Dionys. ii. 50). But, however this may be, it is certain, notwithstanding the assertion of Varro, that Sol and Luna were reckoned among the great gods, that their worship never occupied any prominent place in the religion of the Romans, for the two divinities had between them only a small chapel in the Via Sacra (Sext. Ruf. Reg. Urb. iv). Luna, on account of her greater influence upon the Roman mode of calculating time, seems to have been revered even more highly than Sol, for there was a considerable temple of her on the Aventine, the building of .which was ascribed to Servius Tul-lius (Ov. Fast. iii. 883 ; Tac. Ann. xv. 41 ; P. Vict. Reg. Urb. xiii.). A second sanctuary of Luna existed on the Capitol, and a third on the Palatine, where she was worshipped under the name of Noctiluca^ and where her temple was lighted up every night. (Varro, de Ling. Lat. v. 68 ; Horat. Carm. iv. 6. 38). Further particulars concerning her worship are not known. [L. S.]
LUPERCA, or LUPA, an ancient Italian divi nity, the wife of Lupercus, who, in the shape of a she-wolf, performed the office of nurse to Romulus and Remus (Arnob. adv. Gent. iv. 3). In some accounts she is identified with Acca Laurentia, the wife of the shepherd Faustulus. (Liv. i. 4 ; comp. acca laurentia,) [L. S.]
LUPERCUS, an ancient Italian divinity, who was worshipped by shepherds as the protector of their flocks against wolves, and at the same time as the promoter of the fertility among sheep, whence he was called Inuus or 'E<pid\Ti]s. On the north side of the Palatine hill there had been in ancient times a cave, the sanctuary of Lupercus, surrounded by a grove, containing an altar of the god and his figure clad in a goat- skin, just as his .priests the Luperci (Dionys. i. 79 ; Justin. xliii. 1, 4 ; Liv. i. 5 ; Serv. ad Aen. vi. 776 ; Isidor. viii. 11, 103, &c. ; Artemid. Oneir. ii. 42). The Romans sometimes identified Lupercus with the Arcadian Pan. Respecting the festival celebrated in honour of Lupercus and his priests, the Luperci, see Diet, of Ant. s. v. Lupercalia and Luperci. [L.S.] LUPERCUS, a friend of the younger Pliny, to whom the latter occasionally sent his orations for revision. (Plin. Ep. ii. 5, ix. 26.) He is probably the same as the Lupercus who frequently asked Martial for his epigrams. (Mart. i. 118.)
LUPERCUS (AourrepKos), of Berytus, a learned grammarian, lived a little time before the Roman emperor Claudius II. (reigned A, d. 268—270). He was the author, according to Suidas, of the following works :—three books on the particle av9 Ilepl rod Tcccfo, Tlepi rijs /captSos, Hepl tov Trapefc nAarwn uteKTpvovos, a Krio-is of the Egyptian town Arsinoetus or Arsinoe, 'ArriKal A&jets, Tex^ ypaju/Ji.aTi.K'fii and thirteen books on the three genders, in which Suidas says that Lupercus surpasses Herodian in many points.
LUPERCUS, MU'MMIUS, a Roman legate, and commander of the winter-quarters of two legions of the army of the Rhine, was sent by Hordeonius Flaccus against Civilis, by whom he