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erroneously called Lucilius). In b.c. 52 he waS a candidate with Cicero for the augufship, and in the following year a candidate with M. Caelius for the aedileship, but he failed in both ; and as he was ,thus opposed both to Cicero and his friend, he is called in their correspondence, Hillus, " the stammerer." When Cicero wished to obtain a tri-
•ttmph on account of the successes he had gained in Cilioia, he endeavoured to become reconciled to Luc-.ceius, and his name frequently occurs in Cicero's correspondence at that period. (Cie. ad Farn. ii.
•10: § 1, viii. 2. § 2, 3. § 1, 9. § 1, 11. § 2, ad Att. vii. 1. §§7,8.) ,
On the breaking out of the civil war in B. c. 49, Hirrus joined Pompey, and was stationed with a military force in northern Ital}', but, like the other Pompeian commanders, was deserted by his own troops (Caes. B.C. i. ]5, where Liicceium is the true reading instead of Uldllem; comp. Cic. ad Att. viii. 11. A.). He was subsequently sent by Pompey as ambassador to Orodes, king of Parthia, to endeavour to gain his assistance for the aristocracy, but he was thrown into prison by the Parthian king; and when Pompey's officers, before the battle of Pharsalia, confident of victory, were assigning the various offices of the state, there was a vehement .dispute whether Hirrus should be allowed to stand for the praetorship in his absence (Caes. B. C. iii. 82 ; Dion Cass.. xliL 2). He was pardoned by Caesar after the battle of Pharsalia, and returned to Rome. The C. Hirrius mentioned by Pliny (H. N. ix. 55. s. 81) and Varro (R.JK. dii. 17), as the first person who had sea-water stock-ponds for lampreys, and who sent some thou-jsands of them to Caesar for his triumphal banquets, is most probably the same person as the preceding, "though he is spoken of as a separate person under JJiRRius. It would likewise appear that the
•Hirtius9 whom Appian says (B. C. iv. 43, 84) was proscribed by the triumvirs in b. c. 43, and who fled to Sex. Pompey in Sicily, is a false reading for Hirrus.
LUCERIUS, LUCE'RIA, also tucetius and
•Lucetia, that is, the giver of light, occur as sur names of Jupiter and Juno. According to Servius (ad Aen. ix. 570) the name was used especially among the Oscans. (Macrob. Sat. i. 15 ; Gellius, v. 12; Paul. Diac. p. 1144 ed. Mliller; comp. lucina.) [L. S.]
LUCIANUS (AovKiavts). 1. Of antioch, one of the most eminent ecclesiastics and biblical scholars in the.early Church. He was born, like his illustrious namesake, the satirist, at Samosata, on the Euphrates: he was; of respectable parents, by whom he was early trained up in religious principles and habits. They died, however, when he was only twelve years old ; and the orphan lad, having distributed his property to the poor, removed to Edessa, where he was baptized, and devoted himself to ascetic practices, becoming the intimate friend, and apparently the pupil of Macarius, a Christian of that town, known principally as an expounder of the Scriptures. Lucian, having determined to embrace an ecclesiastical life, became a
presbyter at Antioch, and established in that city a theological school, which,was resorted to by many students from all parts, and which exercised a considerable influence on the religious opinions of the subsequent generation. What were the religious opinions of Lucian himself it is difficult exactly to detenmne. They were such as to expose him to the charge of heterodoxy, and to induce three successive bishops of Antioch to excommunicate him, or else to induce him to withdraw with his followers from communion with them. According to Valesius and Tillemont the three bishops were Domnus, the successor of Paul of Samosata (a. d. 269—273), Timaeus.(A. d. 273—280), and Cyrillus (a. d. 280 —300) ; and Tillemont dates his separation from A. d. 269, and thinks it continued ten or twelve years. The testimony of Alexander, patriarch of Alexandria (apud Theodoret, H. E. i. 4), who was partly contemporary with Lucian, makes the fact of this separation indisputable. He states that Lucian remained out of communion with the church for many years ; and that he was the successor in heresy of Paul of Samosata, and the precursor of Arius. Anus himself, in a letter to Eusebius of Nicomedeia (apud Theodoret, H.E.\. 5), addresses his friend as ffv\\ovKiavi(rrd " fellow-Lucianist," which may be considered as intimating that Lucian held opinions similar to his own ; though, as Arius would, in his circumstances, be slow to take to himself a sectarian designation, we are disposed to inr terpret the expression as a memorial that they had been fellow-students in the school of Lucian. Epiphanius, who devotes a-section of his principal work (Panarium; ffaeres. 43, s. ut alii, 23) to refute the heresies of the Lucianists, says that Lucian was originally a follower of Marcion, but that he separated from him and formed a sect of his own, agreeing, however, in its general principles, with that of the Marcionites. Like Marcion, the Lucianists conceived of the Demiurgos or Creator, as distinct from the perfect God, o dyaBos " the good one ;M and described the Creator, who was also represented as the judge, as 6 5I/ceaos "the just one."' -Beside these two beings, between whom the commonly received attributes and offices of ,God were divided, the Lucianists reckoned a third, d irovTipos, " the evil one." Like the Marcionites, they condemned . marriage : Epiphanius says that this was out of hatred to the Demiurgos or Creator, whose dominion was extended by the propagation of the human race. This description of the sect is to be received with very great caution, for Epiphanius acknowledges that it had been long extinct, and that his inquiries had led to no clear or certain information respecting it. The gnostic character of the doctrines ascribed to it receives no countenance from the statements of Alexander of Alexandria, and is probably altogether without foundation : the views of Lucian appear to have had more affinity with those of the Arians ; and it is observable that Eusebius of Nicomedeia, Leontius of Antioch, and other prelates of the Arian or Semi-Arian parties, and possibly (as already intimated) Arius himself, had been his pupils. But whatever may have been the heterodoxy of Lucian, he either abjured it or explained it so as to be restored to the communion of the Church, in which he continued until his martyrdom, the glory of which was regarded as sufficient to wipe off all the reproach of his former heresy; and "Lucian the martyr" had the unusual distinction of being re-