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COIN OF MUSSIDIUS LONGUS.
LONGUS, SEMPRO'NIUS. 1. Ti, sempronius 0. f. C. n. longus, consul with P. Cornelius Scipio b. c. 218, the first year of the second Punic war. Sicily was assigned to him as his province, since the Romans did not dream that Hannibal would be able to cross the Alps, and invade Italy itself. Semprohius accordingly crossed over to Sicily, and began to prosecute the war against the Carthaginians with vigour. He conquered the island of Melita, which was held by a Carthaginian force, and on his return to Lilybaeum was preparing to go in search of the enemy's fleet, which was cruising off the northern coast of Sicily and Italy, when he was summoned to join his colleague in Italy, in order to oppose Hannibal. As it was now winter, Sempronius feared to sail through the Adriatic* and, accordingly, he crossed over the straits of Messana with his troops, arid in forty years marched through the whole length of Italy to Ariminum. From this place he effected a junction with his colleague, who was posted on the hills on the left bank of the Trebia. As Sempronius was eager for an engagement, and Hannibal was no less anxious, a general battle soon ensued, in which the Romans were completely defeated, with heavy loss, and the two consuls took refuge within the walls of Placentia. (Liv. xxi. 6, 17, 51-^-56; Pojyb. iii. 40, 41, 60—75; Appian, Annib. 6, 7.)
Sempronius Longus afterwards commanded in Southern Italy, and defeated Hanno [hanno, No. 15] near Grumentum in Lucania, b. c. 215. (Liv. xxiii. 37.) He was decemvir sacris faciun-dis, and died b. c. 210. (Liv. xxvii. 6.) . 2. Ti. sempronius Ti. f* C. n. longus, son of the preceding, seems to have been elected decemvir sacris faciundis in place of his father in b.c. 210, and likewise augur in the same year, in place of T. Otacilius Crassus. Livy (xxvii. 6) speaks of the augur and decemvir as Ti. Sempronius Ti f. Longus ; and though it is rather strange that he should have obtained the augurate before he had held any of the higher magistracies, yet we must suppose him to be the same as the subject -of the following notice, since Livy gives his name with so much accuracy, and we know of no one else of the same name at this time. He was tribune of the plebs b. c. 210, curule aedile b. c. 197, and in the same year one of the triumviri for establishing colonies at Puteoli, Buxentum, and various other places in Italy ; praetor b. c. 196, with Sardinia as his province, which was continued to him another year; and consul b. c. 194 with P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus. In his consulship he assisted as triumvir in founding the colonies which had been determined upon in b. c. 197, and he fought against the Boii with doubtful success. In the year after his consulship, b. c. 193, he served as legate to the consul L. Cornelius Merula, in his campaign against the
Boil, and in B*c. 191 he served as legate to the consul M'. Acilius Glabrio, in his campaign against Antiochus in Greece. In b. c. 184 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the censorship. (Liv. xxxi. 20, xxxii. 27, 29, xxxiii. 24, 26, 43, xxxiv. 42, 45, 46, 47, xxxv. 5, xxxvi. 22, xxxix. 40.) He died b.c. 174. (Liv. xli. 21.)
3. C. sempronius longus was elected decemvir sacris faciundis in the place of Ti. Sempronius Longus [No. 2], who died in the great pestilence b. c. 174. (Liv. xli. 21.) He may have been a son of No. 2, and thus succeeded his father in the priestly office.
4; P. sempronius longus, praetor b. c. 184, obtained Further Spain as his province. (Liv» xxxix. 32, 38.)
LONGUS, SULPI'CIUS. 1. Q. sulpicius longus, one of the consular tribunes b. c. 390, the year in which Rome was taken by the Gauls. He is mentioned two or three times in the legends of the period, and is said to have been the tribune who made the agreement with Brennus for the withdrawal of his troops. (Liv. v. 36, 47, 48 ; Diod. xiv. 110 ; Macrob. Saturn, i. 16.)
2. C. sulpicius ser. f. Q. n. longus, grandson of the preceding, was a distinguished commander in the war against the Samnites. He was consul for the first time, b. c. 337, with P. Aelius Paetus ; for the second time, in b. c. 323, with Q. Aulius Cerretanus; and for the third time, B. c, 314, with M. Poetelius Libo. In the last year Sulpicius, with his colleague Poetelius, gained a great and decisive victory over the Samnites not far from Caudium; but it appears from the Triumphal Fasti that Sulpicius alone triumphed. (Liv. viii. 15, 37, ix. 24—27 ; Diod. xvii. 17, xviii. 26, xixi 73.) It is conjectured from a few letters of the Capitoline Fasti, which are mutilated in this year, that Sulpicius was censor in b.c. 319; and we know from the Capitoline Fasti that he was dictator in b. c. 312.
LONGUS, M'. TU'LLIUS, consul, b. c. 500, with Sen Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus in the tenth year of the republic. For the events of the year see camerinus, No. 1. Tullius died in his year of office. (Liv. ii. 19 ; Dionys. v. 52 ; Zonar. vii. 13 ; Cic. Brut. 16.)
LONGUS, VE'LIUS, a Latin grammarian, known to us from a treatise De Ortliographia^ still extant. He was older than Charisius, who refers to his writings twice ; first (i. 18. § 2) to some work of which the title has not been preserved, and afterwards (ii. 9. § 4) to notes on the second book of the Aeneid. In a third reference (ii. 13. § 149) to certain observations on Lucretius, his name is an interpolation. The commentary on Virgil is mentioned by Macrobius (Sat. iii. 6) as if it were one of the earlier compilations of this class (huno multi alii commentatores secuti sunt), is noticed by Servius also (Ad Virg. Aen. x. 145), and in the collection of scholiasts upon Virgil published by Mai at Milan in 1818 from a Verona palimpsest. (Suringar, Hist. Scholiast. Lot. p. 184.)
The De OrtJiographia was brought to light by George Merula, and published by Fulvius Ursinus in his " Notae ad M. Varronem de Re Rustica," 8vo. Rom. 1587. It will be found in the " Gram-maticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui " of Putschius, 4to. Hanov. 1605, p. 2214—2239. [W. R.]
LOPHON, one of the statuaries, who mad? "athletaset armatos etvenatores sacrificantesque."