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On this page: Libon – Libya – Libys – Libyst – Lichas – Licinia


LIBON (Atecw), an Elejan, was the architect of the great temple of Zeus in the Altis at Olympia, which was built by the Eleians out of the spoils of Pisa and other neighbouring cities, which had re­ volted from them, and had been again subdued. (Paus. v. 10. § 2 or 3.) This event is believed to have occurred about 01. 50, B. c. 580 (/&. vi. 22, § 2 or 4); but there is no reason to suppose that the temple was commenced immediately, or even soon, after this date. It seems more probable that the temple had not been very long completed when Phidias began to make in it his gold and ivory statue of Zeus (01. 85. 4, b. c. 43J). Allow­ ing for the time which so magnificent a work as this temple would occupy, we may safely place the architect's date somewhat before the middle of the fifth century b. c. The t.emple itself is described by Pausanias (v. 10). A few rains of it remain. (Stanhope, Olympm^ p. 9 ; Cockerell, Bibl. ItaL 1831, No. 191, p. 205 ; Blouet, Expedition Sdent. de la Moree, livr. 11, pi. 62, foil.) [P. S.]

LIBYA (At§i5r?). 1. A daughter of Epaphus and Memphis, from whom Libya (Africa) is said to have derived its name. By Poseidon she is said to have been the mother of Agenor,BeIus,and Lelex. (Paus. i. 44. § 3; Apollod. ii. 1. § 4, iii. 1. § 1.)

2. A daughter of Palamedes, and by Hermes the mother of Libys. (Hygin. Fab. 160.)

3. A sister of Asia. (Tzetz. ad LycopTi. 1277.) -v [L.S.]

LIBYS, the name of two mythical personages, one a son of Libya (Hygin. Fab. 160), and the other one of the Tyrrhenian pirates whom Bacchus changed into dolphins. (Ov. Met. iii. 617.) [L. S.]

LIBYSTt'NUS, that is, the Libyan, a sur­ name under which Apollo was worshipped by the Sicilians, because he was believed to have destroyed by a pestilence a Libyan fleet which sailed against Sicily. (Macrob. Sat. i. 17.) [L. S.]

LICHAS (A/x«s)» an attendant of Heracles. He brought to his master the deadly garment, and as a punishment, was thrown by him into the sea, where the Lichadian islands, between Euboea and the coast of Locris, were believed to have derived their name from him. (Ov. Met. ix. 155, 211, &c. ; Hygin. Fab. 36; Strab. ix. p. 426, x. p. 447.) A Latin of the same name occurs in Virgil. (Aen, x. 315.) [L. S.]

LICHAS or LICHES (AiXas, Ai'x^s). 1. One of the Spartan Agafhoergi (see Diet, of Ant. s. v.), who, according to the story, enabled his countrymen to fulfil the oracle, which had made their conquest of Tegea conditional on their ob­taining thence the bones of Orestes. Lichas, having gone to Tegea Jn the course of his mission, disco­vered the existence of a gigantic coffin under a blacksmith's shop, — a place answering remarkably to the enigmatical description of the oracle. He reported this at home, and, his countrymen having pretended to banish him, he came again to Tegea, persuaded the smith to let him his house, and having dug up the bones, returned with them to Sparta. From this time the Spartans were always victorious over the Tegeans. The date of the evects, with which the above tale is connected, we do not know with accuracy ; but they occurred early in the reign of Anaxandrides and Ariston, which began probably about b. c. 560. (Herod, i. 67, 68 ; Larcher, ad loc.; Paus. iii. 3, 11, viii. 5 ; comp. Clinton, F. H. vol. i. pp. 92, 102, 339,

. it p. 207.)


2. A Spartan, son of Arcesilaus, was proxenus of Argos and one of the ambassadors who proposed to the Argives, without success, in b. c. 422, a renewal of the truce, then expiring, between Argos and Sparta. (Thuc. v. 14, 22.) In b. c. 420, when the Spartans had been excluded by the Eleians from the Olympic games because of their alleged breach of the sacred truce in the seizure of Lepreum, Lichas sent a chariot into the lists in the name of the Boeotian commonwealth ; but, his horses having won the victory, he came forward and crowned the charioteer, by way of showing that he was himself the real conqueror. For this he was publicly beaten by the Eleian paSSovxoi, and Sparta did not forget the insult, though no notice was taken of it at the time. (Thuc. v. 49, 50 ; Xen. Hell. in. 2. §21 ; Paus. vi. 2.) In b.c. 418, he succeeded in in­ ducing the Argives to make peace with Lacedae- mon after the battle of Mantineia. (Thuc. v. 76.) In b. c. 412, he was one of the eleven commis­ sioners sent out to inquire into the conduct of Astyochus, the Spartan admiral, and was foremost in protesting against the treaties which had been made with Persia by Chalcideus and Theramenes (the Lacedaemonian) respectively, — especially against that clause in them which acknowledged the king's right to all the territories that had been under the rule of his ancestors. We find him, however, in the following year, disapproving of the violence of the Milesians in rising on the Persian garrison in their town, as he thought it prudent to keep on good terms with the king as long as the war with Athens lasted ; and his remonstrances so exasperated the Milesians, that, after his death (which was a natural one) in their country, they would not allow the Lacedaemonians there to bury him where they wished. (Thuc. viii. 18, 37, 39, 43, 52, 84.) We learn from Xenophon and Plu­ tarch that he was famous throughout Greece for his hospitality, especially in his entertainment of strangers at the Gymnopaedia (see Diet, of Ant. s. v.) ; for there is no reason to suppose this Lichas a different person, unless, indeed, we press closely what Plutarch says, — that he was renowned among the Greeks for nothing but his hospitality.- (Xen. Mem. i. 2. § 61 ; Plut. Cim. 10 ; comp.: Miiller, Dor. iv. 9. § 5.) [E. E.]

LICINIA. 1. The wife of Claudius Asellus [asellus, No. 3], lived about the middle of the second century b. c. When she and Publicia were accused of murdering their husbands, they gave bail to the praetor for their appearance, but were put to death by order of their relatives, consequently by Sijudicium domesticum. (Liv. Epit. 48 ; Val. Max. vi. 3. § 8 ; Rein, Criminalrecht der Romer9 p. 407.) .

2. A vestal virgin, and the daughter of C. Licinius Crassus, tribune of the plebs, b.c. 145 [crassus, No. 3]. She dedicated in b. c. 123 a chapel in a public place ; but the college of .pon­tiffs declared, when the matter was laid before them by order of the seriate, that the dedication was invalid, as it had been made in a public place, without, the command of the people:. the chapel was therefore removed. (Cic. pro Dom. 53.) The preceding Licinia appears to be the same vestal virgin who was accused of incest, together with= two of her companions, in b. c. 114. It appears: that a Roman knight of the name of L. Veturius had seduced Aemilia, one of the vestals, and that, anxious to have companions in her guilt, she had

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