The Ancient Library

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On this page: Li Bert As – Libfthrides – Libitina – Libo



Beroea, this noble resolution began to fail. He made overtures of submission, probably through Demophilus, the heretic bishop of the city where he had been compelled to take up his abode, and, having been summoned to Sirmium, signed in the presence of the council there assembled (the third, a. d. 357), the Arian creed sanctioned by that con­clave [potamius], and the decrees against Atha-nasius. Upon this he was permitted to return to Rome, there to exercise a divided power along with a certain Felix, who had been nominated his succes­sor. But the zeal of the people in favour of their an­cient pastor frustrated this amicable arrangement. Violent tumults arose, Constantius yielded' to the vehement display of popular feeling, Felix resigned, and his departure from the city was signalised by an inhuman massacre of his adherents. Liberius passed the remainder of his life in tranquillity, dying in a. d. 366, not however, we are assured, until lie had once more changed his profession, by recanting all his errors and becoming a Catholic.

I. The correspondence of Liberius as exhibited by Constant comprises twelve epistles. 1. Ad Osium. 2. Ad Caedliamim. 3. Ad Eusebium Vercellensem. 4. Ad Constantium Augustum. 5, 6. Ad Eusebium Vercellensem. 7. Ad Eusebium, Dionysium, et Luciferum exsules. 8. Ad Orientales. 9. Ad Ursacium, VaUntem, et Germinium, bishops in the imperial court. 10. Ad Vincentium Capua-num. 11. Ad Catliolicos Episcopos Italiae. 12. Ad universes Orient's ortliodoixos Episcopos^ in Greek.

We find also ascribed to him :—

II. Dicta ad Eusebium spadonem, dum ipsum ut in Afhanasium subscribens Imperatori obtemperaret adhortabatur.

III. Dialogus Liberii et Constantii Imperatoris, triduo antequam in eocilium deportaretur, habitus.

IV. Oratio Liberii Marcellinam S. Ambrosii sororem data virginitatis veto consecrantis.

Of the letters, eight (1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9,10, 11) have been transmitted to us among the fragments of St. Hilarius, three (3, 5, 6) were first extracted by Baronius from the archives of the church at Vercelli, and one (12) is preserved by Socrates, H. E. iv. 12. The Dicta is found in the treatise of Athanasius Ad Monackos, the Dialogus in Theodoret, PI. E. ii. 16, the Oratio in Ambrosius de Virgin, iii. 1, 2, 3.

For full information with regard to the works of this father and discussions on the authenticity of the various pieces, see Coustant, Epistolae Pontifi-cum Rom. fol. Paris, 1721, p. 421, and Gailand, Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. v. p. 65, fol. Venet. 1769, who rejects' epistles 8, 9, 10, as fabrications. (Amm. Marc. xv. 7 ; Hieronym. Chron. ; Sulp. Sever, ii. ; Socrat. H. E. iv. 12 ; Sozomen/ H. E. iv. 15 ; Theodoret, H. E. ii. 17.) [W. R.]

LI BERT AS, the personification of Liberty, was worshipped at Rome as a divinity. A temple was erected to her on the Aventine by Tib. Sempronius Gracchus, the expenses of which were defrayed by fines which had been exacted. Another was built by Clodius on the spot where Cicero's house had stood (Liv. xxiv. 16 ; Paul.Diac. p. 121; Dion Cass. xxxviii. 17, xxxix. 11), which Cicero afterwards con­temptuously called Templum Licentiae (pro Dom. 51, de Leg. ii. 17). After Caesar's victories in Spain, the senate decreed the erection of a temple to Libertas at the public expense (Dion Cass. xliii. 44) ; and after the murder of Sejanus, a statue of


her was set up in the forum. (Dion Cass. Iviii. 12.) From these temples we must distinguish the Atrium Libertatis, which was in the north of the forum^ towards the Quirinal, probably on the elevated ground extending from the Quirinal to the Capito-line. (Cic. ad Ait. iv. 16 ; Liv. xliii. 16.) This building, which had been restored as early as b. c. 195 (Liv. xxxiv. 44), and was newly built by Asinius Pollio (Suet. Aug. 29), served as an office of the censors (Liv. /. c. xliii. 16, xlv. 15), and sometimes also criminal trials were held (Cic. p. Mil. 22), and hostages were kept in it. (Liv; xxv. 7.) It also contained tables with laws in­scribed upon them, and seems, to some extent, to have been used as public archives. (Liv. xliii. 16 ; Fest. p. 241, ed; Muller.) After its rebuilding by Asinius Pollio, it became the repository of the first public library at Rome. Libertas is usually repre-j sented as a matron, with the pileus, the symbol of liberty, or a wreath of laurel. Sometimes she ap­pears holding the Phrygian cap in her hand. (Dion Cass. xlvii. 25, Ixiii. 29; Suet. Ner. 57; Hirt. Mythol. Bilderb. p. 115, tab. 13, 14.) [L. S.]

LIBFTHRIDES (Aeigrj0pi5€s), or nymphae Libethrides, a name of the Muses, which they derived from the well Libethra in Thrace ; or, ac­ cording to others, from the Thracian mountain Libe- thrus, where they had a grotto sacred to them. (Virg. Eclog. vii. 21 ; Mela, ii. 3; Strab. ix. p. 410, x. p. 471.) Servius (ad Edog. L c.) derives the name from a poet Libethrus, and Pausanias (ix. 34. § 4) connects it with mount Libethrius in Boeotia. (Comp. Lycoph. 275; Varro, de Ling. Lot. vii. 2.) [L. S.]

LIBITINA, an ancient Italian divinity, who was identified by the later Romans sometimes with Persephone (on account of her connection with the dead and their burial) and sometimes with Aphrodite. The latter was probably the conse­quence of etymological speculations on the name Libitina, which people connected with libido. (Plut. Num. 12, Quaest. Rom. 23.) Her temple at Rome was a repository of everything necessary for burials, and persons might there either buy or hire those things. It was owing to this circum­stance, that a person undertaking the proper burial of a person (an undertaker) was called Iibitinarius9 and his business libitina, whence the expressions libitinam exercere^ or facere (Senec. de Benef. vi. 38 ; Val. Max. v. 2. § 10), and libitina funeribus non sufficiebat, i. e. they could not all be buried. (Liv. xl. 19, xli. 21.) Also the utensils kept in the temple, especially the bed on which corpses, were burnt, were called libitina. (Plin. xxxvii. 3 ; Martial, x. 97 ; Ascon. Argum. ad Milon.) Dio-nysius (iv. 79) relates that king Servius Tullius, in order to ascertain the number of persons who died, ordained that for each person that had died, a piece of money should be deposited in the temple of Libitina. (Comp. Suet. Ner. 39.) Owing to this connection of Libitina with the dead, Roman poets frequently employ her name in the sense of death itself. (Horat. Carm. iii. 30. 6; Sat. ii. 6* l99Epist. ii. 1. 49 ; Juvenal, xiv. 122.) [L. S.] LI'BIUS SEVE'RUS. [severus.] LIBO DRUSUS. [Lmo, scribonius, Nos. 5 and 6.]

LIBO, L. JU'LIUS, was consul b.c. 267, with M, Atilius Regulus, three years before the first Punic war. The two consuls made war upon the Sallentini in Apulia, whom they conquered, and

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