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LEPTINES.

Q. LEFT A, a native of Cales in Campania, and praefectus fabriim to Cicero in Cilicia b. c. 51. (Cic. ad Fam. iii. 7, v. 10). Two of the letters which Cicero addressed to him are extant (ad Fam. vi. 18, 19), and show strict intimacy between the correspondents. Lepta was a Pompeian; and while Cicero, in b. c. 49, was hesitating whether to remain in Italy, or to repair to Pompey's camp, Lepta was one of his channels of communication with the Pompeians (ad Fam. vi. 18, xiv. 17, xvi. 4, ad Alt. vi. 8, viii. 3, ix. 12, 14, xL 8.) ; and at the close of the war, after the battle of Munda, Lepta, through his zeal for two of his fellow-towns­ men of Cales, was hazarding his own interests with the Caesarians. (Ad Fam. ix. 13.) In b. c. 45 he was, however, suing for a commission to supply the wine for Caesar's triumphal games, for which his connection with Cales in the vine district (ager Falernits) of Campania probably afforded him facilities. (Ad Att. xiii. 46.) Cicero dis­ suaded him from undertaking it, as likely to prove a laborious and thankless task, (Ad Fain. vi. 19.) He "was one of Cicero's debtors. (Ad Att. x. 11,) Lepta Bad at least one son,, to whom Cicero (ad Fam. vi. 18) recommends the reading of his treatise de Oratore, and a precept of Hesiod. (Op. et dies, 287.) [W. B. D.]

LEPTINES (A«rr/wj$). 1. A Syracusan, son of Hermocrates, and brother of Dionysius th& elder, tyrant of Syracuse. He is first mentioned as com­manding his brother's fleet at the siege of Motya (b. c. 397), and was for some time entrusted by Dionysius with the whole direction of the siege, while the latter was engaged in reducing the other towns still held by the Carthaginians. (Diod. xiv. 48.) After the fall of Motya he was stationed there with a fleet of 120 ships, to watch for and intercept the Carthaginian fleet under Himilco ; but the latter eluded his vigilance, and effected his passage to Panormus in safety, with the greater part of his forces, though Leptines pursued them, and sunk fifty of his transports, containing 5000 troops. (Id. 53—55.) The face of affairs was now changed: Himilco was able to advance unopposed along the north coast of the island, and took and destroyed Messana; from whence he advanced upon Syracuse, his fleet, under Mago, supporting the operations of the army. Leptines, by his brother's orders, immediately advanced with the Syracusan fleet to engage that of Mago, and a great naval action ensued, in which Leptines displayed the utmost valour; but having imprudently ad­vanced with 30 of his best ships into the midst of the enemy, he was cut off from the rest of his fleet, and only able to effect his escape by standing out to sea. The result was, that the Syracusans were defeated with great loss, many of their ships fell into the hands of the enemy, and Leptines himself retired with the rest to Syracuse. During the siege that followed, he continued to render im­portant services, and commanded (together with the Lacedaemonian Pharacidas) the final attack upon the naval camp of the Carthaginians, which terminated in the complete destruction of their fleet, (Diod. xiv. 59, 60, 64, 72.) We hear no more of him until b. c. 390, when he was again despatched by Dionysius with a fleet to the assist­ance of the Lucanians against the Italian Greeks. He arrived jnst as the former had gained a great victory over the Thurians ; but instead of joining them to crush their enemies, he afforded a refuge to

LEPTINES.

the Thurian fugitives, and succeeded' in bringing about a peace between the contending parties. For this conduct, which was entirely opposed to the views of Dionysius, he was deprived of the command of the fleet, which was given to his younger brother, Thearides. (Id. xiv. 102.) Some time afterwards he gave farther offence to the jealous temper of the tyrant, by giving one of his daughters in marriage to Philistus, without any previous intimation to Dionysius, and on this account he was banished from Syracuse, together with Philistus. He there­upon retired to Thurii, where the services rendered by him to that city during the late war with the Lucanians secured him a favourable reception ; and he quickly rose to so much power and influence among the Greeks of Italy, that Dionysius judged it prudent to recal his sentence of banishment, and invite him again to Syracuse. Here he was com­pletely reinstated in his former favour, and obtained one of the daughters of Dionysius in marriage. (Diod. xv. .7; Plut. Dion. 11.) In b.c. 383, war having again broken out with the Carthagi­nians, Leptines once more took an active part in the support of his brother, and commanded the right wing of the Syracusan army in the battle near Cronium: but after displaying the greatest personal prowess, he himself fell in the action, and the troops under his command immediately gave way. (Diod. xv. 17.)

2. A Syracusan, who joined with Callippus in expelling the garrison of. the younger Dionysius from Rhegium, b.c. 351. Having effected this, they restored the city to nominal independence, but it appears that they continued to occupy it with their mercenaries: and not long afterwards Leptines took advantage of the discontent which had arisen among these, to remove Callippus by assassination. (Diod. xvi. 45 ; Plut. Dion. 58.) We know nothing'of his subsequent proceedings, nor of the circumstances that led him to quit Rhe­gium, but it seems probable that he availed him­self of the state of confusion in which Sicily then was to make himself master of the two cities of Apollonia and Engyum: at least there is little doubt that the Leptines whom we find established as the tyrant of those cities when Timoleon arrived in Sicily is the same with the associate of Callip­pus. He was expelled in common with all the other petty tyrants, by Timoleon ; but his life; was spared, and he was sent into exile at Corinth, b. c. 342. (Diod. xvi. 72; Plut. TYwzo/. 24.)

3. One of the generals of Agathocles, who, during the absence of that monarch in Africa, de­feated Xenodocus, the governor of Agrigentum, in a pitched battle, and with great slaughter. (Diod. xx. 56.) When Agathocles, after repairing for a short time to Sicily, returned once more to Africa, b. c. 307, he again left Leptines in command during his absence, who obtained a second victory over Xenodocus. (Id. xx. 61, 62.)

4. A Syracusan, whose daughter was married to Hieron, afterwards king of Syracuse. Leptines was at that time, we are told, unquestionably the man of the highest consideration among his fellow-citi­ zens, which induced Hieron, who had just been appointed general of the republic, but was already aiming at higher objects, to court his alliance. (Polyb.i. 9,) ........

5. An Athenian, known only as the proposer of a law taking away all special exemptions from the burden of public charges (areAetat j&v teiro

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