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wrote a work, 'AAteuriKci (Ath. i. p. 13, c.) which is often quoted by Aelian (2V. A. ii. 6, 50, iii. 18, xii.42).
4. A Stoic philosopher of Rhodes (Strab. xiv. p. 655), and perhaps the same as the author of a work on Italy, which is quoted by Tzetzes (Schol. ad Lycophr. 756).
LEONIDAS, a patronus causarum in the tri bunal of the praefectus praetorio at Constantinople. He was one of the 16 commissioners appointed to compile the Digest under the presidency of Tribo- nian. (Const. Tanta9 § 9; Const. AeSou/cev, § 9.) [J. T. G.]
LEONIDAS (Aewf/Sas), a physician who was a native of Alexandria, and belonged to the sect of the Episynthetici (Pseudo-Galen, Tntrod. c. 4. vol. xiv. p. 684 ; Gael. Aurel. De Morb. Acut. ii. 1, p. 75). As he is quoted by Caelius Aurelianus (L c.), and himself quotes Galen (ap. Aet. iv. 2,11, p. 688), he probably lived in the second and third centuries after Christ. Of his writings, which appear to have chiefly related to surgical subjects, nothing remains but some fragments preserved by Aetius (pp. 241, 397, 686, 687, 688, 689, 691,692, 736, 741, 743, 799, 800, 802) and Paulus Aegineta (iv. 59,p. 534, vi. 32, 44,64,67,78, pp. 562, 569,578, 580,585), from which we may judge that he was a skilful prafcktv3R«£, £W. A. G.J
LEONIDAS, artists. L A painter, of Aa-thedon* and a disciple of the great painter Euphra-nor, (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'AvdrjSc&v; Eustath. ad Horn. II. ii.508.)
2. An architect, of little note, who wrote upon proportions (Vitruv. vii. praef. §. 14). [P. S.]
LEONNATUS (Acowaros). 1. A Macedonian of Pella, one of Alexander's most, distinguished officers. His father's name is variously given, as Anteas, Anthes, Onasus, and Eunus. (Arrian. Anab. iii. 5. § 7, vi. 28. § 6, Ind. 18, ap. Phot. p. 69, a, ed. Bekker). According to Curtius he was descended from a royal house (Curt. x. 7),% which may be the reason we find him early occupying a distinguished post about the person of Philip of Macedon ; at the time of whose death (b. c. 336) he was one of the select officers called the king's body guards (crcojoiaTo<J)uA.aKes). In this capacity he is mentioned as one of those who avenged the death of Philip upon his assassin Pausariias. (Diod. xvi. 94.) Though he accompanied Alexander on his expedition to Asia, he did not at first hold an equally distinguished position in the service of the young king: he was only an officer of the ordinary guards (eraipot) when he was sent by Alexander after the battle of Issus to announce to the wife of Dareius the tidings of her husband's safety. (Arr. Anab. ii. 12. § 7 ; Curt, iii, 12 ; Diod. xvii. 37 ; Plut. Aleoc. 21.) Shortly after, however, during Alexander's stay in Egypt (b. c. 331), Leonnatus was appointed to succeed Arrhybas as one of the seven (TtOjUaTo^i/AaKes (Arr. Anab. iii. 5, vi. 28), and from this time forward his name continually occurs, together with those of Hephaestion, Per-diccas, and Ptolemy, among the officers immediately about the king's person, or employed by him on occasions requiring the utmost confidence. Thus we find him making one of the secret council appointed to inquire into the guilt of Philotas ; present at the quarrel between Alexander and Cleitus, and attempting in vain to check the fury of the king ;
keeping watch over Alexander's tent at the time of the conspiracy of the pages ; and even venturing to excite his resentment by ridiculing the Persian custom of prostration. (Curt. vi. 8. § 17, viii. 1 §46, 6. §22; Arr. Anab. iv. 12. §. 3.) Nor were his military services less conspicuous ; in B. c. 327 he is mentioned as taking a prominent part in the attack on the hill fort of Chorienes, and was wounded at the same time with Ptolemy and Alexander himself, in the first engagement with the barbarian tribes of the vale of the Choes. On a subsequent occasion he led one division of the army to the attack of one of the strong positions which the Indian mountaineers had occupied : but his most distinguished exploit was in the assault on the city of the Malli, where Alexander's life was only saved by the personal courage and prowess of Leonnatus and Peucestas. (Arr. Anab. iv. 21, 23, 24, vi. 10 ; Curt. viii. 14. $ 15, ix. 5.) We next find him commanding the division of cavalry and light-armed troops which accompanied the fleet of Alexander down the Indus, along the right bank of the river. During the subsequent march from thence back to Persia, he was left with a strong force in the country of the Oreitae, to enforce the submission of that tribe and maintain the communications with the fleet under Nearchus. These objects he successfully accomplished; and the Oreitae and neighbouring barbarians having assembled a large army, he totajly defeated th§ffl with heavy loss. As a reward for taese various services, he was selected by Alexander as one of those whom he honoured with crowns of gold during his stay at Susa, b. c. 325. (Arr. Anab. vi. 18, 20, 22, vii. 5, Ind. 23, 42 ; Curt. ix. 10.)
Leonnatus thus held so conspicuous a place among the Macedonian generals, that in the first deliberations which followed the death of Alexander, it was proposed to associate him with Perdiccas, as one of the guardians of the infant king, the expected child of Roxana. (Curt. x. 9. § 3 ; Justin. xiii. 2.) In the arrangements ultimately adopted however, he obtained only the satrapy of the Lesser or Hellespontine Phrygia (Arrian. ap. Phot. p. 69, b ; Dexippus, ibid. p. 64, a ; Diod. xviii. 3 ; Curt. x. 10. § 2 ; Justin. xiii. 4.), a share which was far from contenting his ambition, though he thought fit to acquiesce for the time. But hardly had he arrived to take possession of his government, when he received an urgent message from Antipater, calling on him for assistance against the revolted Greeks. Nearly at the same time also arrived letters from Cleopatra, the sister of Alexander, urging him to aid her against Antipater, and offering him her hand in marriage. Leonnatus immediately determined to avail himself of the double opportunity thus presented to his ambition ; first to assist Antipater against the Greeks, and after having freed him from that danger, to expel him in his turn from Macedonia, marry Cleopatra, and seat himself upon the throne. With these views (for which he in vain endeavoured to obtain the support of Euinenes) he crossed over into Europe at the head of a considerable army, and advanced into Thessaly to the relief of Antipater, who was at this time blockaded in Lamia by the combined forces of the Greeks (b. c. 322). He was met by the Athenians arid their allies under An'tiphilus, and a pitched battle ensued, in which, though the main army of the Macedonians suffered but little, their cavalry, commanded by Leonnatus