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On this page: Largus – Larichus – Lariscolus – Larissaeus – Laronius



genius August! was added to the Lares praestites, just as among the Lares of a family the genius of the paterfamilias also was worshipped.

But besides the Lares praestites and compitales, there are some other Lares which must be reckoned among the public ones, viz., the Lares rurales, who were worshipped in the country, and whose origin was probably traced to certain heroes who had at one time benefitted the republic. (Cic. De Leg. ii. 11 ; Tibull. i. 1. 24.) The Lares arvales pro­bably belonged to the same class. (Klausen, De Carm. Prat. Arval. p. 62.) We have also mention of Lares viales, who were worshipped on the high­roads by travellers (Plant. Merc. v. 2, 22 ; Serv. ad Aen. iii. 302) ; and of the Lares marini or permarini, to whom P. Aemilius dedicated a sanc­tuary in remembrance of his naval victory over Antiochus. (Liv. xl. 52.)

The worship of the Lares was likewise partly public and partly private. The domestic Lares, like the Penates, formed the religious elements of-the Roman household (Cic. De Repub. iv. in fin., ad Fain. i. 9, in Verr. iii. 24; Cat. De Re Rust. 143) ; and their worship, together with that of the Penates and Manes, constituted what are called the sacra privata. The images of the Lares, in great houses, were usually in a separate com­partment, called aediculae or lararia. (Juven. viii. 110; Tibull. i. 10. 22 ; Petron. 29 ; Ael. Lamprid. Alex.Sev. 28 ; comp. Diet, of Ant. s. v. Lararium.) The Lares were generally represented in thecinctus Gabinus (Pers. v. 31 ; Ov. Fast. ii. 634), and their worship was very simple, especially in the early times and in the country. The offerings were set before them in patellae, whence they themselves are called patellarii (Plant. Cistell. ii. 2. 55), and pious people made offerings to them every day (Plant. Aulul. Prolog.) ; but they were more especially worshipped on the calends, nones, and ides of'every month. (Cat. De Re Rust. 143 ; Horat. Carm. iii. 23. 2 ; Tibull. i. 3. 33 ; Virg. Eclog. i. 43.) .When the inhabitants of the house took their meals, some portion was offered to the Lares, and on joyful family occasions they were adorned with wreaths, and the lararia were thrown open. (Plaut. Aulul. ii. 8. 15 ; Ov. Fast. ii. 633 ; Pers. iii. 24, &c., v. 31 ; Propert. i. 1. 132 ; Petron. 38.) When the young bride entered the house of her husband, her first duty was to offer a sacrifice to the'Lares. (Macrob. Sat. i. J5.) Respecting the public worship of the Lares, and the festival of the Larentalia, see Diet, of Ant. s. v. Larentalia, Compitalia. (Comp. Hempel, De Diis Laribus, Zwickau, 1797 ; Muller, De Diis Romanorum Laribus et Penatibus, Hafniae, 1811 ; Schomann, De Diis Manibus, Laribus et Geniis, Greifswald, 1840; Hertzberg, De Diis Romanorum Patriis9 sivede LarumatquePenatiumtampublicorumquam privatorum Religione et Cultu, Halae, 1840.) [L.S.] LA'RGIUS LICI'NIUS. [lartius lici-


LARGUS, CAECINA. [cakcina, Nos. 6 and 7.]

LARGUS, SCRIBO'NIUS, a Roman phy­sician, whose praenomen is unknown, and who sometimes bears the agnomen Designatianus. He lived at Rome in the first century after Christ, and is said to have been physician to the emperor Claudius, and to have accompanied him in his ex­pedition to Britain. He himself mentions Messa-lina, the wife " Dei nostri Caesaris" (c. xi. § 60,


p. 203). He was a pupil of Tryphon (c. xliv. § 175, p. 222) and Apuleius Celsus (c. xxii. § 94, p. 208, c. xlv. § 171, p. 221). He appears to have written several medical works in Latin (Praef. p. 188), of which only one remains, entitled " Com- positiones Medicae," or " De Compositione Medi- camentorum." It is dedicated to C. Julius Cal- listus, at whose request it was written, at a time when Largus was away from home (perhaps in Britain), and deprived of the greater part of his library (Praef.). It consists of nearly three hun­ dred medical formulae, Several of which are quoted by Galen (De Compos. Medicam. Sec. Loc. vol. xii. pp. 683, 738, 764, vol. xiii. pp. 67, 280,284, &c.), and is interesting, as tending to illustrate the Ma- teria Medica of the ancients, but in no other point of view. It has been supposed that the work was originally written in Greek, and translated into Latin by some later author, and that it is this version only that we now possess ; but there does not seem to be any sufficient reason for this con­ jecture. It was first published at Paris, 1529, fol. appended by J. Ruellius to his edition of Celsus. Another edition was published in the same year at Basel, 8vo. The best edition is that of J. Rhodius, Patav. 1655, 4to., containing an improved text, copious and learned notes, and a " Lexicon Scribo- nianum." The last edition is that by J. Mich. Bernholii, Argent. 1786, 8vo., containing the text of Rhodius, but omitting his notes and " Lexicon Scribon." The work of Scribonius Largus is also contained in the collections of medical authors pub­ lished by Aldus, Venet. 1547, fol. and H. Stephens, Paris, 1567, fol. C. G. Kuhn published in 1825, 4to. Lips., a specimen of Otto Sperling's " Observa- tiones in Scribonium," from a MS. at Copenhagen. See Haller's Biblioth. Medic. Pract., and Biblioth. Botan. ; Sprerigel9Hist. delaMed.; Fabric. Biblioth. Lot.; Choulant, Handb. der Bucherkunde fur die Aeltere Medicin. [W.A.G.]

LARGUS, VALE'RIUS, had been a friend of Cornelius Gallus, but accused him before the em­peror Augustus. Largus was in consequence treated with marked contempt at Rome. (Dion Cass. liii. 23, 24.)

LARICHUS (Aa>xos), one of Sappho's bro­thers, was cup-bearer in the prytaneium of the Mytilenaeans, and was praised in his sister's poems. (Athen. x. p. 425, a.; Eustath. ad II. xx. p. 1280; Schol. Victorin. ad II. xx. 234.) [P. S.]

LARISCOLUS, ACCOLEIUS. [agcoleia gens.]

L^RISSA (Adpiffffa), a daughter of Pelasgus, from whom the arx of Argos and two Thessalian towns are believed to have derived their name. (Paus. ii. 24. § 1 ; Strab. xiv. p. 621, who calls her a daughter of Piasus, a Pelasgian prince.) [L.S.]

LARISSAEUS and LARISSAEA (Aapwwuew and Aa/N(rcra?tt), surnames of Zeus and Apollo, de­ rived from the arx Larissa at Argos (Paus. ii. 24. § 4 ; Strab. ix. p. 440, xiv. 649 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. Aaptcro-a), and of Athena, who derived it from the river Larissus, between Elis and Achaia, where the goddess had a sanctuary. (Paus. vii. 17. §3.) [L.S.]

LARONIUS, an officer of Augustus in the Sicilian war with Sext. Pompey, b. e. 36. He was despatched with three legions by M. Agrippa to relieve L. Cornificius from his perilous situation at Tauromenium, in Sicily [L. cornificius, No. 5], (Appian, B.C. v. 12, 15.) [W. B. D.]

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