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was Justin, desirous of recalling Peter from his errors, addressed letters to him. The letter of Peter, in the original Greek, with a Latin version, Epistola Justini Episcopi in Sicilia, ad Petrum Ful-lonem s. Cnapheum, is given in the Concilia (vol. iv. col. 1103, &c., ed. Labbe ; vol. ii. col. 839, ed. Hardouin ; vol. viL col. 1115, ed. Mansi.) The genuineness of this letter, and of six others of similar character, from various Eastern or Western bishops; which are also given in the Concilia, is dis-1 puted by Valesius (Observat. Eccles. ad Evagriztm Libri duo. Lib. I. De Petro Antioclien. Episcop. c. 4) ; but defended by Cave (Hist. Litt. vol. i. p. 458), who, however, contends that the Greek text is not the original, but a version from the Latin. Pagi (Critice in Baronii Annales9 ad ann. 485, c. 15) proposes to correct the reading of the title of Justin's letter from " Episcopi in Sicilia," to " Episcopi in Cilicia ;" others would read the name *' Justinianus," but on what authority we do not know. Dodwell and others ascribe to this Justin the Responsiones ad Orthodoxos, and the Etipositio Rectae Confessionis, reputed to be by Justin Martyr, and printed with his works. [No. 1.] (Cave, I.e.; Mongitor. Biblioth. Sicula9vol. i. p. 417, &c.; Fabric. BlU. Gr. vol. vii. p. 53; vol. xi. p. 661 ; vol. xii. p. 655.) [J. C. M.]
JUSTINUS, HESY'CHIUS. [hesychius, No. 5.]
JUSTUS ('iouotos), a Jewish historian of Ti berias in Galilaea, was a contemporary of the Jewish historian Josephus, who was very hostile to him. Justus wrote, according to Photius (Bibl. cod. 33), a chronicle of the Jewish kings, from the time of Moses down to the death of Herod, in the third year of the reign of Trajan. The style of the work, which is lost, is said by Photius to have been concise, and the author omitted many of the most important events, such as the history of Christ, which it was a common practice with Jewish writers to pass over unnoticed. Justus is further charged with having falsified the history of the wars with Rome, which led to the destruction of Jeru salem. (Comp. Joseph. Vit. §§ 37, 65, 74, who gives a long account of him, and censures him very severely.) He edited his work after the death of Agrippa and the other, great men of the time, because, as Josephus says, he knew that his accounts were false, and had reason to fear the con sequences. Some writers (Euseb. H. E. iii. 9 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. TtGepias) speak of a work of his on the Jewish war, but this may refer only to the last portion of his chronicle, which Diogenes Laertius (ii. 41) calls a ^ri^a. Suidas (s. v. 'Ipva-Tos) mentions some other works of Justus, of which however not a trace has come down to us. [L. S.]
JUSTUS CATONIUS. [catonius.]
JUSTUS, FA'BIUS, a friend of Tacitus, who addresses him in the beginning of his treatise De Oratoribus. He was also connected by friendship with the younger Pliny, who mentions him in his letters (Epist. i. 11, vii. 2), and we have every reason for believing that he was a distinguished rhetorician of the time. [L. S.]
JUSTUS, PAPI'RIUS, a Roman jurist, who Hvcd in the time of the Antonines, and collected
imperial constitutions. Of his Cpmtittitionum Lib-'i XX. there are 16 fragments^in the Digest, not extending beyond the 8th book. The constitutions cited are all rescripts of the Antonines, either Marcus alone (Dig. 2. tit. 14. s. 60) or Marcus and Verus jointly. Of the collector nothing more is known^ but his date is inferred from the circumstance that the Antonines are named in the extracts taken from his work without the epithet Divus. (Aug. C. Stockmann [Car. Aug. Hennike], Papirii Justi, Icti Romani^ fragmmta observatiunculis Ulustrata^ 4to, Lips. 1792 ; Petr. Elisa Piepers, de Papirio Justo, Icto, 4to. Lug. Bat. 1824.) [J. T. G.]
JUTURNA, the nymph of a well in Latium, famous for its excellent healing qualities. Its water was used in nearly all sacrifices (Serv. ad Aen. xii. 139 ; Varr. de L. L. v. 71), and a chapel was dedicated to its nymph at Rome in the Campus Martius by Lutatius Catulus ; sacrifices were offered to her on the llth of January both by the state and private persons. (Ov. Fast. i. 463; Serv. I. c.) A pond in the forum, between the temples of Castor and Vesta, was called Lacus Juturnae, whence we must infer that the name of the nymph Juturna is not connected with jugis, but probably withjuvare. She is said to have been beloved by Jupiter, who rewarded her with immor tality and the rule over the waters. (Virg. Aen. xii. 140, 878 ; Ov. Fast. ii. 585, 606.) Arnobius (iii. 29) calls her the wife of Janus and mother of Fontus, but in the Aeneid she appears as the affectionate sister of Turnus. (Hartung, Die Relig. der Rom. vol. ii. p. 101, &c.) [L. S.]
JUVENALIS, DE'CIMUS JU'NIUS. The small amount of direct information which we possess with regard to the personal history of Juvenal is derived almost exclusively from a very meagre memoir, which bears the name of Suetonius, but which is by most critics ascribed, with greater probability, to Valerius Probus, or some later grammarian. We are here told that the poet was either the son or the " alumnus" of a rich freedman ; that he occupied himself, until he had nearly reached the term of middle life, in declaiming, more, however, for the sake of amusement than with any view to professional exertion ; that, having subsequently composed some clever lines upon Paris the pantomime, he was induced to cultivate assiduously satirical composition ; that for a considerable period he did not venture to publish his essays; but that having eventually attracted numerous audiences, and gained great applause, he inserted in one of his new pieces the verses which had formed a portion of his first effort, those, namely^ which we now read in Sat. vii. 86—91, where, speaking of the popularity of Statius, he adds:
" sed quum fregit subsellia versu
Esurit, intactam Paridi nisi vendat Agaven. Ille et militiae multis largitur honorem, Semestri vatum digitos circumligat auro. Quod non dant proceres, dabit histrio ; tu Ca-
merinos Et Bareas, tu nobilium magna atria curas ! "
That the actor (or an actor) being at that time in high favour at court, and enjoying extensive influence, Juvenal became an object of suspicion, as one who had indirectly (figurate) censured the corrupt practices of the day ; and although now an old man of eighty, was forthwith, under the semblance of honourable distinction, appointed to the command