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JUSTINUS.

viously been adopted by a member of that illustrious family. Amaritius, indignant at being cheated by a rustic, gave vent to his feelings, and perhaps conspired with Theodatus. They were accordingly accused of treason, and, what was still worse, of heresy, and they paid for their imprudence with their heads. Several of their associates shared their fate. In 519 Justin, who was a stanch adherent of the orthodox church, and had adopted energetic measures against the Eutychians, concluded an ar­rangement with pope Hormisdas, in consequence of which the harmony between Rome and Constan­tinople remained undisturbed during a considerable time, to the great satisfaction of the East. In the following year, 520, Justin adopted his nephew Justinian, whom he had withdrawn in early youth from their native village, and the government was henceforth in the hands of Justinian. The eleva­tion of Justinian was signalized by an event which occasioned great discontent and disorders in the empire. The Goth Vitalian, so famous by his war against Anastasius, and who held the offices of con­sul and magister militum, under Justin, became an object of suspicion and jealousy to the emperor and his crafty nephew, and on rising from a banquet to which he had been invited, was treacherously assassinated by the order and in presence of Justin and Justinian. Vitalian was beloved by the faction of the Green, who immediately took up arms, and as they were opposed by the Blue, who enjoyed the favour of the emperor, great troubles arose, which lasted during three years, without Justin's becoming well acquainted with the extent of danger. When he was at last apprised of it, he appointed one Theodotus prefect of the capital, who succeeded in restoring peace. In 522 some misunderstand­ing arose between Justin and Theodoric, king of the East Goths in Italy, who was offended with Justin because he continued to appoint consuls, a dignity which, in the opinion of Theodoric, could only be conferred by the master of Rome ; but Justin prudently renounced the privilege, leaving its exercise entirely to the Gothic king, who accord­ingly appointed Symmachus and the famous Boe-thius consuls for the year 522. In the same year misunderstandings arose between Justin and the Persian king Cabades, on account of the kingdom of Colchis or Lazica. Cabades proposed to the emperor, as a guarantee for their mutual friendship, to adopt his favourite son Nushirwan or Chosroes, who afterwards reigned over Persia with so much glory, and Justin would have complied with the king's wishes, but for the interference of the wise quaestor Proclus, on whose advice the emperor declined the proposition. Annoyed by the failure of his plan, Cabades prepared for war, the outbreak of which was hastened by Gurgerius, king of Iberia, throwing himself upon the protection of the em­peror. The Persians having invaded Iberia, Justin dispatched Sittas and Belisarius against them, and this is the first time that the name of Belisarius becomes known in history. He was, however, not successful in this campaign, but was, neverthe­less, appointed governor of the great fortress of Dara, on the confines of Mesopotamia and Syria, and the historian Procopius was appointed his secretary. The war was carried on for some years without leading to important results on either side. In 525 a terrible earthquake and the overflowing of several rivers carried destruction through some of the finest cities of the empire. In the East Edessa,

, JUSTINUS

Anazarba, and Pompeiopolis were laid in ruins, and in Europe Corinth and Dyrrachium met with a similar fate. But the destruction of Antioch at the same time by fire and water offered a still more heart-rending sight. When Justin heard of its awful fate, he ordered the theatres to be closed, took off his royal diadem, and dressed himself in mourning. He spent two million pounds sterling .towards the rebuilding of Antioch, which was done with the utmost splendour, and he evinced a pro­ portionate liberality towards the other sufferers. On the whole, Justin, though a barbarian and a fanatic, was a man of good sense, a sincere well- wisher of his subjects, and successful in choosing capable persons to govern them ; his knowledge of the human character was remarkably sound. He died on the 1st of August, 527, shortly after having conferred the dignity of Augustus upon his nephew and successor, the great Justinian. He was buried in the church of Euphemia near his wife Euphemia, a woman as illiterate and rude as her husband, but who never interfered with public affairs, and who caused that church to be built at her expense. (Evagr. iv. 1—10, 56 ; Procop. Vandal, i. 9 ; De Aed. ii. 6, 7, iii. 7, iv. 1 ; Arcan. c. 6, 9 ; Pers. i. 19. ii. 15, &c.; Theoph. p. 141, &c. ; Zonar. vol. ii. p. 58, &c. ; Cedren. p. 363 in the Paris edit. ; Jornand. De Regn. Suec. p. 62, ed. Lindenbrog.) [W. P.]

JUSTINUS II., the younger, emperor of the East, from a. d. 565—578, and nephew of the great Justinian. (See the genealogical table prefixed to the life of Justinian I.) His reign is signalized by important and extraordinary events. Justin had in­finitely less merit than his cousins Justinus and Jus­tinian, the sons of Germanus, who had distinguished themselves in the field against the Persians, and were universally beloved for the frankness of their character ; but he was of a crafty disposition, and while his cousins exposed their lives in the defence of the empire, he prudently remained at Constan­tinople and courted the aged Justinian. In order to insinuate himself the better into his uncle's favour, he married Sophia, the niece of the empress Theodora, a beautiful and clever woman, but am­bitious, imperious and revengeful. In the night that Justinian died (13th of November, 565), Justin had retired to his apartments, and was fast asleep, when he was suddenly awakened by a loud knocking against his door : it was a deputation of the senate, composed of some of its members who had witnessed the emperor's death, and now came to congratulate Justin, whom, according to their report, the dying monarch had appointed his suc­cessor. Whether this was true or not, no time was lost by Justin and his friends. He went imme­diately to the senate, who were already waiting for him, and after a document had been read to him, which purported to be the will of Justinian, he was forthwitli proclaimed emperor. Early in the following morning he repaired to the hippodrome, which was filled by an immense and anxious crowd, and after having delivered divers fine speeches, which met with boisterous acclamation, he issued a general pardon for all offenders, and, in order to convince the people the more completely of his vir­tuous and generous sentiments, summoned the numerous creditors of Justinian to come forth with their claims. They obeyed eagerly, and their as­tonishment was still greater when a file of porters made their appearance, each, sighing under the

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