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JUSTINIANUS.

their master without having executed his bloody orders, Maurus with his whole army joined Philip- picus, who, with them and his own forces, forthwith sailed for Constantinople. Meanwhile, Justinian was gone to Sinope, on the Euxine, opposite the Crimea, in order to be as near as possible to the theatre of the war, and he was delighted when he discovered his fleet on the main in the direction of the Bosporus. He was soon informed of the rebellion, and hastened to his capital, in order to prepare a vigorous defence, but on his way thither he received the terrible news that Constantinople had surrendered to Philippicus, and that his son, the youthful Tiberius, had been assassinated on the altar of the Church of the Holy Virgin. He has­ tened back to Sinope, but while he was hesitating what fo do, he was overtaken by Elias, once his friend, but whom he had cruelly persecuted, and who put him to death (December, 713). Elias struck off the tyrant's head and sent it to Constan­ tinople, where it arrived in January, 712. Phi­ lippicus now reigned without opposition. Justinian was the last emperor of the family of the great Heraclius ; and he was the first who caused the image of Christ to be put on his coins. (Theophan. p. 303, &c. ; Niceph. Call. p. 24 ; Cedren. p. 440, &c. ; Zonaras, vol. ii. p. 91, &c. ; Glycas, p. 279 ; Const. Manasses, p. 79 ; Const. Porphyr. De Adm. Imp. c. 22, 27, in the Paris edit.; Suidas, s. v. 'Iov<TTiviav6s ; Paulus Diacon. De Gest. Longob, vi. 11, 12,31, 32.) [W.P.]

JUSTINIANUS, the second son of Germanus, and the grand-nephew of Justinian I. (see the genealogical table prefixed to the life of that em­peror), a distinguished general, becomes first con­spicuous in the Gothic campaign of a. d. 550, when, after exerting himself in raising the army that was to invade Italy through Illyricum, he was appointed, on the sudden death of his father, to succeed him in the supreme command. He was then very young, but the time of his birth can only be conjectured: it was probably about 530. In the following year he commanded, with his elder brother, Justin, against the Slavonians ; and he is also mentioned as the commander of the Greek auxiliaries of Alboin against Thrasimund, king of the Gepidae. His name became universally known as one of the first generals of the empire, when the regent, Tiberius, appointed him, in 574, or, as some say, 576, eommander-m-chief of an army of 150,000 German and Scythian mercenaries, against the Persian king, Chosroes, who had invaded Armenia. Justinian advanced from Cappadocia, and Chosroes pushed on to meet him. The en^ counter'took place at Melitene, in Lesser Armenia, not far from the Euphrates: and after a sharp struggle, the left wing of the Persians was totally routed; in consequence of which Chosroes was compelled to retreat in haste and confusion into the heart of his dominions, This splendid victory was equally due to the military skill of Justinian, and the undaunted valour of Curs, a Scythian in the Greek service. Upon this Justinian crossed the Euphrates, and turning to the left, conquered part of northern Persia, took up his winter-quarters in Hyrcania, and returned unmolested in the fol­lowing spring to Armenia. But there he suffered a severe defeat from the Persian general, Tam-chosroes, in consequence of which the pending negotiations for peace were abruptly broken off by Chosroes, and the war continued without any pro-

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spect of a speedy termination. Tiberius, dissatis­fied with Justinian's conduct in this campaign, recalled him, and gave the command to Mauricius. Justinian thought himself unfairly dealt with, and entered into a conspiracy to assassinate Tiberius on the day of his coronation, and to have himself chosen in his stead. It appears that he had no chance of success, for he voluntarily confessed his evil designs, and Tiberius generously pardoned him. When, in the following year, 579, Tiberius was absent from the capital, the empress Sophia, who expected that Tiberius would have married her, but was grievously disappointed at seeing that he was secretly married to another, persuaded Justinian to resume his former designs, promising to assist him with her treasures and influence. The plan was discovered, the property of Sophia was confiscated, and a watch was put upon her ; but Justinian was again pardoned by the noble Tibe­rius. The time of Justinian's death is not known. (Theophan. p. 385, &c., ed. Paris ; Evagrius, v. 14, &c.; Procop. Bell. Goth. iii. 32, 40, iv. 25, 26 ; Theophylact. iii. 12, &c. ; Paul. Diacon. iii. 12 ; Menander in Excerpt. Legat.; the sources quoted in the lives of Justin. II. and Tiberius.) [W. P.]

JUSTINIANUS, son of Mauricius. [mau­ricius.]

JUSTINUS I, or the elder, emperor of the East from a. d. 518—527, was of barbarian, pro­bably Gothic extraction. Tired of the humble occu­pation of a shepherd, for which he had been brought up in his native village, Tauresium, in Dardania, he went to Constantinople in company with two youthful comrades, to try his fortune in the capital. Justin entered the guards of the emperor Leo, and through his undaunted courage soon rose to some eminence. He served with great distinction against the Isaurians and the Persians, and his merits were successively rewarded with the dignities of tribunus, comes, senator, and at last cominander-iii-chief of the imperial guards, an important post, which he held in the reign of the emperor Anastasius. It. was expected that the aged Anastasius would appoint one of his three nephews his future suc­cessor^ but as they evinced little capacity, the em­peror hesitated. His prime minister, the eunuch Amantius, availed himself of his master's irresolu­tion to promote his own interest by bringing about the election of his creature Theodatus, and for this purpose entrusted large sums of money to Justin, with which he was to bribe the guards and other persons of influence to espouse the cause of Theo­datus. He expected that an illiterate and rude barbarian, who resembled Hercules more than Mer­cury, would faithfully execute his orders. But he was greatly mistaken. Justin employed the money for his own elevation ; and when Anastasius died, on the 10th July, 518, it was not Theodatus whom the army proclaimed emperor, but Justin, who thus ascended the- throne without opposition, at the advanced age of sixty-eight. Justin could neither read nor write, and was in every respect a rude soldier ; but his predecessor Anastasius was scarcely more civilized, and the people preferred a brave master to a learned one. Feeling his incapacities as a statesman, Justin committed the direction of affairs to the quaestor Proclus, and this excellent man discharged his functions to the satisfaction of both master and subjects. Soon after his accession, as it appears, Justin assumed the noble name of Anicius ; some, however, believe that he had pre-

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