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that they consequently indicate the number 7*2. In the time of Augustus forty gold coins (aurei or solidi} were equal to a pound ; but as these coins were struck lighter and lighter, it was at length enacted by Valentinian I. in a. d. 367 (Cod. 10. tit. 7*2 (70), s. 5), that henceforth 72 solidi should be coined out of a pound of gold ; and we accord­ingly find conob for the first time on the coins of the latter emperor.

In the reign of Justinian the custom was first introduced of indicating on the coins the number of the year of the emperor's reign. This practice be­gan in the twelfth year of Justinian's reign, and explains the reason why Justinian enacted, in the eleventh year of his reign, that in future all official documents were to contain in them the year of the emperor's reign. (Novella, 47.) In the same year another change was made in the coins. Hitherto they had represented the emperor as a warrior with a lance ; but Justinian, who carried on his wars by means of his generals, and who was more interested personally in legislation, theological disputes, and public buildings, caused himself to be represented with the imperial globe and no longer as a warrior.

The drawing below represents a medal of Justi­nian, which was found by the Turks among the ruins of Caesareia, in Cappadocia, in the year 1751. It was carried to Constantinople, where it was bought by Desalleurs, who presented it to Louis XV. It was stolen from the royal collection at Paris, in the year 1832, but an engraving of it had been previously given by De Boze, in the Memoires de P^Lc&demie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, vol. xxvi. p, 523. Its loss is the more to be deplored, as it is the only specimen known to be in existence. The obverse represents the head of Justinian with the legend d n ivstinianvs pp avg : he wears a richly adorned helmet, behind which is the nimbus, and holds in his right hand a spear. On the re­verse the emperor is riding on a horse, adorned with pearls ; the helmet, the nimbus, the spear, and the dress, correspond to the representation on the obverse: before him walks Victory, looking round at him, and carrying in her left hand a trophy: by the side of Justinian's head a star ap­pears. The legend is salvs et gloria romano-rvm. This medal was struck probably in the early years of the emperor's reign, as the face is that of a young man, and the obverse resembles what we find on the early coins of Justinian. De Boze thinks that it has reference to the Persian vic­tories.


JUSTINIANUS IL, surnamed RHINO-TME'TUS (he whose nose is cut off), emperor of the East (a. d. 685—695 and 704—711), suc­ceeded liis father Constantine IV. Pogonatus, in the month of. September, a. d. 685, at the age of sixteen. Soon after his accession he made a truce of ten years with the khalif 'Abdu-1-malek, which



is very remarkable in the history of the Eastern empire. The civil wars by which the empire of the Arabs was shaken compelling the khalif to cease making war without his realm, in order to obtain peace within, he bound himself to pay a daily "tribute of 1000 pieces of gold, one slave, and one horse of noble breed." The emperor in his turn ceded to the khalif one moiety of the income of Armenia, Iberia (in the Caucasus), and Cyprus, which were henceforth held in joint occupancy by the two monarchs, and he promised to employ his forces and authority in compelling the Mardaites or Maronites, in Mount Lebanon, to refrain from mo­lesting the Arabs. This promise was a great political blunder, the consequences of which are still felt by the inhabitants of the Lebanon and Syria. Leontius, one of the most distinguished generals of the Greeks, and afterwards emperor, having been charged with executing the treaty in the case of the Maronites, assassinated their chief Joannes, compelled the people to take the oath of allegiance, and persuaded 10,000 Maronites to leave their na­tive mountains with their wives and children, and to settle in Thrace and Armenia. Until then the Christian Maronites had been a barrier against the progress of the Arabs in these quarters, and no sooner were they thus dispersed than the Moham­medans obtained a firm footing in the Taurus and Anti-Taurus, and found themselves enabled to in­vade Asia Minor at their leisure. It is true the Maronites never lost their independence entirely, but other tribes, hostile to them, settled in Lebanon ; and they continued to be what they still are, an outpost surrounded by the enemies of Christianity, scarcely able to maintain themselves on their native rocks, and unable to make a step beyond them.

It was expected that the energy which young Justinian had shown on many occasions would lead him to perform great and good actions ; but his bad character soon became manifest, and caused a universal and deep disappointment throughout his dominions. Instead of establishing peace in the church, he caused new dissensions through his intolerance: the Manichaeans were cruelly per­secuted ; many thousands were put to death by the sword or by fire ; and the remainder were driven into merciless exile. In 688 he broke the peace with the Bulgarians, and obtained a splendid victory over them; but having allowed himself to be surprised by another army, he was totally routed, lost half of his troops, and fled in confusion to Constantinople. About the same time the Arabs set out for their fourth invasion of Africa. Justi­nian exerted himself with great activity in opposing their designs ; a numerous fleet carrying a strong body of troops, left Constantinople, and, being reinforced by the garrisons of Sicily, compelled the Arabs to retreat in haste to their native county. Instead of availing himself of his success, Justinian foolishly gave up his joint occupancy of Cyprus, which was forthwith seized by the Arabs, who, encouraged by the strange conduct of the emperor, invaded Asia Minor and Mesopotamia in 692, and in the following year conquered all Armenia. Jus­tinian consoled himself with pleasures, and found relief in torturing his subjects.. His luxury, es­pecially his love of erecting magnificent buildings, in which he rivalled his great namesake Justinian I., involved him in extraordinary expenses, and the art of inventing new taxes, soon became .his

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