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ides of every month by his flamen, while a female lamb and a pig were offered to Juno on the ka­lends of every month by the wife of the rex sacro-rum. (Macrob. Sat. i. 15 ; Ov. Fast. i. 587 ; Fest. s. v. Idulis Ovis.) Another sacrifice, consisting of a ram, was offered to Jupiter in the regia on the nundines, that is, at the beginning of every week (Macrob. Sat. i. 16 ; Festus. s. v. nundinas) ; and - it may be remarked in general that the first day of every period of time both at Rome and in La-tium was sacred to Jupiter, and marked by festi-yals, sacrifices, or libations.

It seems to be only a necessary consequence of what has been already said, that Jupiter was con­sidered as the guardian of law, and as the pro­tector of justice and virtue: he maintained the sanctity of an oath, and presided over all trans­actions which werQ based upon faithfulness and justice. Hence Fides was his companion on the capitol, along with Victoria; and hence a traitor to his country, and persons guilty of perjury, were thrown down the Tarpeian rock. Faithfulness is manifested in the internal relations of the state, as well as in its connections with foreign powers, and in both respects Jupiter was regarded as its pro­tector. Hence Jupiter and Juno were the guar­dians of the bond of marriage ; and when the har­mony between husband and wife was disturbed, it was restored by Juno, surnamed Conciliatrix or Viriplaca, who had a sanctuary on the Palatine. (Fest. s. v. Conciliatrix; Val. Max. ii. 1. § 6.) Not only the family, however, but all the political


bodies into which the Roman people was divided/ such as the gentes and curiae, were under the especial protection of the king and queen of the gods ; and so was the whole body of the Roman people, that is, the Roman state itself. The fact of Jupiter being further considered as the watchful guardian of property, is implied in his surname of Hercius (from the ancient 7terctu?n, property), and from his being expressly called by Dionysius (ii. 74), opios Zeife, i. e. Jupiter Terminus, or the pro­tector of boundaries, not only of private property, but of the state. '

As Jupiter was the prince of light, the white colour was sacred to him, white animals were sa­crificed to him, his chariot was believed to b& drawn by four white horses, his priests wore white caps, and the consuls were attired in white when they offered sacrifices in the capitol the day they entered on their office. (Festus, s.v. alboga-lerum pileum.) When the Romans became ac­quainted with the religion of the Greeks, they naturally identified Jupiter with Zeus, and after­wards with the Egyptian Ammon, and in their representations of the god they likewise adopted the type of the Greek Zeus. [zeus ; comp. Har-tung, Die Relig. der Rom. vol. ii. p. 8, &c.) [L. S.]

JUSTINA. [valentinianus.]

JUSTINIANUS, I. FLA'VIUS ANI'CIUS, surnamed MAGNUS, or the great, emperor of constantinople and rome from a. d. 527 to 565. His descent and family connections are given in the following genealogical table :—

A Gothic fanner or shepherd.

biglenza, Latinised vigilantja ; m. Istocus, Latinised Sabatius.


justinus I., flavius anicius, born a. d. 450 ; emperor iri 518 ; died in 527 without issue.

1 .


— 1. justinus, 3. justina,

4. germanus,

consul, put

m. Joannes,


to death by

nephew of

Justin II.,


in 568, or




A son.

3. germanus, Patricius, a great general, died 541; m. 1. Pessara ; 2. Ma-thasuenta, daughter of Eutharic, king of the East Goths, and the celebrated queen Amalasuntha. I

great general in the reigns of Justin II. and Tiberius.

1. baraides. 2. justus.

justinian us, flavius anicius, vigil antia, born probably in 483 (see the m. Dulcis-text below) ; adopted by the simus. emperor Justinus I. in 520 ; emperor 527 ; died 14th of November, 565 ; m. Theodora, who died in 548, and by whom he left no issue. Some illegi­timate children are mentioned.

1. justinus II., flavius anicius, surnamed thrax, emperor 565; died 5th of October, 578; m. Sophia, niece of the empress Theo­dora.



2. bidurius, baduarius, or baudurius, Curopalata ?, m. Arabia?.

—3. marcellus.

justus, arabia, m.

died Baduarius,

young. Baredurius,



—4. praejecta, m. 1. Areobindus, Patricius; 2. Joannes, ne­phew of the emperor Anas-tasius.

(Du Cange, Byzant, p. 95, &c.)

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