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On this page: Junopulus – Jupiter


names, alluding to the various occasions onr which she was invoked by newly-married people, such as, Domiduca, Iterduca, Pronuba, Cinxia, Prema, Pertunda, Fluonia, and Lucina. (Virg. Aen. iv. 166, 457, with Serv. note; Ov. fferozd. vi. 43; August. deCiv. Dei, vi. 7,11, vii. 3; Arnob. iii. 7, 25, vi. 7, 25 ; Fest. s. vv.) The month of June, which is said to have originally been called Junonius, was considered to be the most favourable period for marrying. (Macrob. Sat* i. 12 ; Ov. tFast. vi. 56.) Juno, however, not only presided over the fertility of marriage, but also over its in­violable sanctity, and unchastity and inordinate love of sexual pleasures were hated by the goddess. Hence a law of Numa ordained that a prostitute should not touch the altar of Juno, and that if she had done so, she should with dishevelled hair offer a female lamb to Juno. (Gell. iv. 3.) Women in childbed invoked Juno Lucina to help them (Plaut. AuluLiv. 7, It j Plut. Quaest. Rom. 77 ; Propert. iv. 1, 95 ; Arnob. iii. 9, 21, 23), and after the delivery of the child, a table was laid out for her in the house for a whole week (Tertull. de Anim. 39), for newly-born children were likewise under her protection, whence she was sometimes confounded with the Greek Artemis or Eileithyia. (Catull. xxxiv. 13 ; Dionys. Hal. iv. 15 ; comp. matuta.)

As Juno has all the characteristics of her hus­ band, in so far as they refer to the female sex, she presides over all human affairs, which are based upon justice .and faithfulness, and more especially over the domestic affairs, in which women are more particularly concerned, though public affairs were not beyond her sphere, as we may-infer from her surnames of Curiatia and Populonito. [Gonip. em- panda.] In Etruria, where the worship of Juno was very general, she bore the surname of Cupra, which is said to have been derived from the name of a town, but it may be connected with the Sabine word 'cgprus, which, according to Varro (de L. L. v. 159), signified good, and also occurs in the name of vicus Cyprius. At Falerii, too, her worship *was of great importance (Dionys. i. 21), and so also at Lanuvium, Aricia, Tibur, Praeneste, and other places. (Ov. Fast. vi. 49, 59 ; Liv. v. 21, x. 2 ; Serv. ad Aen. vii. 739; Strab. v. p. 241.) In the representations of the Roman Juno that have come down to us, the type of the Greek Hera is commonly adopted. [L. §»]

JUNOPULUS [janopulus.]

JUPITER, or perhaps more correctly, JUP-PITER, a contraction-of Diovis pater, or Diespiter, and Diovis or dies, which was originally identical with 'divum (heaven); so that Jupiter literally means " the heavenly father." The same meaning is implied in the name Lucesius or Lucerius, by which he was called by the Oscans, and which was often used by the poet Naevius (Serv. ad Aen. ix. 570; comp. Fest. s.v. Lucetium, p. 114, ed. Miiller; Macrob. Sat. i. 15; Gell. v. 12.) The corresponding name of Juno is Lucina. It is further not impossible that the forgotten name, divus pater Falacer, mentioned by Varro (de L. L. v. 84, vii. 45), may be the same as Jupiter, since, according to Festus (s. v.falae, p. 88, ed. Muller), falandum waa the Etruscan name for heaven. The surname of Supinalis (August, de Civ. Dei, vii. 11*) likewise alludes to the dome of heaven.

As Jupiter was the lord of heaven, the Romans attributed to> him power over all the changes in



the heavens, as- rain, storms, thunder and light­ ning, whence he ttast the epithets of Pluvius, Ful- gurator, Tonitrualis, 7b»«K^ Fulminator, and Se- renator. (Appul. de Mund. 3£ ; Fest, s. v. pror- sum; Suet. Aug. 91.) As the pebble or flint stone was regarded as the symbol of lightning, Jupiter was frequently represented with such a stone in his hand instead of a thunderbolt (Arnob. vi. 25) ; and in ancient times a flint stone was ex­ hibited as a symbolic representation of the god. (Serv. ad Aen. viii. 641 ; August, de Civ. Dei, ii. 29.) In concluding a treaty, the Romans took the sacred symbols of Jupiter, viz. the sceptre and flint stone, together with some grass from his temple, and the oath taken on such an occasion was expressed by per Jovem Ldpidem jurdre. (Fest. s.v. Feretrius; Liv. xxx. 43; Appul. de Deo Socrat. 4 ; Cic. ad Fam. vii. 12 ; Gell. i. 21; Polyb. iii. 26.) When the country wanted rain, the help of Jupiter was sought by a sacrifice called aquilicium (Tertull. Apol. 40); and respect­ ing the mode of calling down lightning, see eli- cius. These powers exercised by the god, and more especially the thunderbolt, which was ever at his command, made him the highest and most powerful among the gods, whence he is ordinarily called the best and most high (optimus maximus), and his temple stood on the capitol; for he, like the Greek Zeus, loved to erect his throne on lofty hills. (Liv. i. 10, 38, xliii. 55.) From the capitol, whence he derived the surnames of Capitolinus and Tarpeius, he looked down upon the forum and the city", and from the Alban and sacred mounts he surveyed the whole of Latium (Fest. s. v. Sacer Mons), for he was the protector of the city and the surrounding country. As such he was wor­ shipped by the consuls on entering upon their office, and a general returning from a campaign had first of all .to offer up his thanks to Jupiter, and it was in honour of Jupiter that the victorious ge­ neral celebrated his triumph. (Liv. xxi. 63, xli. 32, xlii. 49.) The god himself was therefore designated by the names of Imperator, Victor, Invictus, Stator, Opitulus, Feretrius, Praedator, Triumphator, and the like. (Liv. i. 12, vi. 29, x. 29; Ov. Fast. iv. 621; August, de Civ. Dei, viii. 11; Serv. ad Aen. iii/223; Appul. de Mund. 37 ; Festus, s.v. Opitulus i Cic. de Leg. ii. 11, -in Verr. iv. 58.) Under all these surnames the god had temples or statues at Rome; arid two temples, viz. those of Jupiter Stator at the Mucian gate and Jupiter Feretrius, were believed to have been built in the time of Romulus. (Liv. i. 12, 41; Dionys. ii. 34, 50.) The Roman games and the Feriae Latinae were celebrated to hini under the names of Capitolinus and Latialis. • Jupiter, according to the belief of the Romans, determined the course of all earthly and human affairs: he foresaw the future, and the events hap­ pening in it were the results of his will. He re­ vealed the future to1 man through signs in the heavens and the flight of birds, which are hence called the messengers of Jupiter, while the god himself is designated as Prodigialis, that is, the sender of prodigies. (Plaut. Amphitr. ii. 2, 107.) For the same reason Jupiter was invoked at the beginning of every undertaking, whether sacred or profane, together with Janus, who blessed the be­ ginning itself (August, de Civ. Dei, vii. 8 ; Liv. viii. 9 j Cato, de R. R. 134, 141 ; Macrob. Sat. i. 16) ; and rams were sacrificed to Jupiter on the

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