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passed over the emperor Tiberius. He did not, however, resent the slight, but allowed her funeral to be celebrated with all the usual honours: the ancestral images of twenty illustrious houses were carried before her bier ; " but Cassius and Brutus," says the historian, " shone before all the others, from the fact that their statues were not seen/* (Suet. Goes. 50 ; Macrob. Sat. ii. 2 ; Cic. ad AtL xiv. 20, xv. 11;. Tac. Ann. iii. 76".) JU'NIA CALVI'NA. -[calvina.] JU'NIA SILA'NA. [silana.] JU'NIA TORQUA'TA. [torquata.] JU'NIA GENS, one of the most celebrated of the Roman gentes, was in all probability originally patrician, as we can hardly conceive that the first consul, L. Junius Brutus, connected as he was with the family of the Tarquins, could have been a plebeian, although the latter hypothesis is maintained by Niebuhr. But however this may be, it is certain that, with the exception of the first consul and his sons, all the other members of the gens were
•plebeians. [brutus.] The family name.s and surnames which occur in the time of the republic are, brutus, bubulcus, gracchanus* norbanus, paciaecus, pennus, pera, pull us, silanus: 'the few who are mentioned without any cognomen are given below, under junius. Many Junii appear
•under the empire with other surnames than those mentioned above, but of course they cannot be regarded as any part of the real Junia gens : of these an alphabetical list is likewise given below.
JUNIUS, 1 .Q. junius, one of the tribunes of the plebs in b. c. 315, who endeavoured to excite 'the people against the murderers of Sp. Maelius. (Liv. iV. 16.)
2. D. junius was stationed with a force by the 'consul, Ap. Claudius, in the second Punic war, b. c. 212, to command the mouth of the Vulturnus. (Liv. xxv. 22.)
• 3.-T. junius, l. f., a contemporary of Sulla, possessed no mean oratorical powers, but was unable to rise beyond the tribuneship of the plebs, on account of his always suffering from ill health. He
•accused and obtained the condemnation of P. ;Sextius, praetor designates, for bribery at the elections* (Cic. Brut. 48.)
4. M. junius, the previous defender of Cicero's
•client, P. Quintius, but was absent on an embassy <when Cicero spoke on behalf of Quintius, b. c. 81. (Cic. pro Quint. 1.)
5. C. JuNiys, presided as judex quaestionis in the yeaf of Verres's praetorship, b.c. 74, in the 'court which condemned Scamander, Fabricius, and Oppianicus, for having attempted to poison the elder Cluentius. The opinion that this verdict was gained by bribing the judices, and, among them, Junius, was so strongly believed, and excited such
•universal indignation, that Junius, -although he had been aedile> and had a good prospect of obtaining the praetorship, was obliged to retire from public
•life altogether, and the Juditium Junianum became a bye-word for a corrupt and unrighteous judgment. (Cic. pro Cluenf.l, 20, 27, 29, 33, c. Verr.\. 10, 61; Pseudo-Ascon. in Verr. p. 141, ed Orelli.) This Junius had a son of the same name. (Pro Cluent. 49.)
JUNIUS PHILARGYRIUS. [philar-
JUNIUS RUSTICUS. [RusTicus.] JU'NIUS SATURNI'NUS. [saturninus.] JUNO. The name of Juno is probably of the same root as Jupiter, and differs from it only in its termination. As Jupiter is the king of heaven and of the gods, so Juno' is the queen of heaven, or the female Jupiter. The Romans identified at an early time their Juno with Hera, with whom she has indeed many resemblances, but we shall endeavour here to treat of the Roman Juno exclusively, and to separate the Greek notions [hera] entertained by the Romans, from those which are of a purely Italian or Roman nature. Jiino, as the queen of heaven, bore the surname of Regina, under which she was worshipped at Rome from early times, and at a later period her worship was solemnly transferred from Veii to Rome, where a sanctuary was dedicated to her on the Aventine. (Liv. v. 21, 22, xxii. 1, xxvii. 37 ; Varr. de L. L. v. 67.) She is rarely described as hurling the thunderbolt, and the main feature of her character is, that she was to the female sex all that Jupiter was to the male, and that she was regarded as the protectress of every thing connected with marriage. She was, however, not only the protecting genius of the female sex in general, but accompanied every individual woman through life, from the moment of her birth to the end of her life. Hence she bore the special sur^-names of Virginalis and Matrona, as well as the general ones of Opigena and Sospita (Ov. Fast. vi. 33 ; Horat. Carrti. iii. 4, 59 ; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 84; August, de Civ. Dei, iv. 11 ; Festus, p. 343, ed. Miiller)j under which she was worshipped both at Lanuvium and at Rome. (Liv. xxiv. 10, xxvii. ^3, xxxii. 30 ; Ov. Fast. ii. 56 ; Cic. de Div. i. 2.) On their birthday women offered sacrifices to Juno surnamed natalis, just as men sacrificed to their genius natalis (Tibull. iv. 6. 13. 15) ; but the general festival, which was celebrated by all the women,, in honour of Juno, was called Matronalia (Diet, of Ant. s. v.), and took place on the 1 st of March. Her protection of women, and especially her power of making them fruitful, is.further alluded to in the festival Populifugia (Diet, of Ant. s. v.) as well as in the surname offebruliss Februata^Februta^ Februalis. (Fest. s.v. Februarius, p. 85, ed. M'uller ; comp. Ov. Fast. ii. 441.) Juno was further, like Saturn, the guardian of the finances, and under the name of Moneta she had a temple oh the Gapitoline hill, which contained the mint. (Liv. vi. 20.) Some Romans considered Juno Moneta as identical with Mi/^oo-Jrr;, but this identification undoubtedly arose from the desire of finding in the name Moneta a deeper meaning than it really contains. [MoNE-ta.] The most important period in a woman's life is that of her marriage, and, as we have already remarked, she was believed especially to preside over marriage. Hence she was called Juga or Jugalis [juga], and had a variety of other