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enough to fall in with a belief which flattered the pride and exalted the origin of the imperial family.

Though it would seem that the Julii first came to Rome in the reign of Tullus Hostilius, the name occurs in Roman legend as early as the time of Romulus. It was Proculus Julius who was said to have informed the sorrowing Roman people, after the strange departure of Romulus from the world, that their king had descended from heaven and appeared to him, bidding him tell the people to honour him in future as a god, under the name of Quirinus. (Liv. i. 16 ; Ov. Fast. ii. 499, &c.) Some modern critics have inferred from this, that a few of the Julii might have settled in Rome in the reign of the first king ; but considering the entirely fabulous nature of the tale, and the circumstance that the celebrity of the Julia Gens in later times would easily lead to its connection with the earliest times of Roman story, no historical argument can be drawn from the mere name occurring in this legend.

The family names of this gens in tke time of the republic are caesar, iulus, mento, and iojbo, of which the first three were undoubtedly patrician; but the only two families which obtained any ce­lebrity are those of lulus and Caesar, the former in the first and the latter in the last century of the republic. On coins the only names which we find are caesar and bursio, the latter of which does not occur in ancient writers.

In the times of the empire we find an immense number of persons of the name of Julius ; but it must not be supposed that they were connected by descent in any way with the Julia Gens ; for, in consequence of the imperial family belonging to this gens, it became the name of their numerous freedmen, and may have been assumed by many other persons out of vanity and ostentation. An alphabetical list of the principal persons of the name, with their cognomens, is given below. [Ju-lius.] (On the Julia Gens in general, see Klau-sen, Aeneas und die Penaten, vol. ii. p. 1059, &c. ; Drumann's Rom, vol. iii. p. 114, &c.)

JULIANUS, historical. 1. A Roman general, who distinguished himself in the war against the Dacians in the reign of the emperor Domitian. (DionCass. Ixvii. 10.)

2. A distinguished Roman of the time of the emperor Commodus, who at first highly esteemed him, and appointed him praefectus praetorio, but afterwards treated him most disgracefully, and at last ordered him to be put to death. (Dion Cass. Ixxii. 14 ; Lamprid. Commod. 7, 11.) [L. S.J

JULIANUS ('lot/Aiaixfe), literary. 1. A Chal-daean, surnamed Theurgus, i. e. the magician, lived in the time of the emperor M. Aurelius, whose army he is said to have saved from destruction by a shower of rain, which he called down by his magic power. Suidas (s. v.) attributes to him also several works, viz. frzovpyiitd, re/Vetm/ca, and a collection of oracles in hexameter verse. His pursuits show that he was a New Platonist, and it would seem that he enjoyed a great reputation, since Porphy-rius wrote upon him a work in four books, which is lost. A. Mai has discovered in Vatican MSS. three fragments relating to astrological subjects (Nova Script. Class. Collect, ii. p. 675), and attri­buted to one Julianus of Laodiceia, whom Mai con­siders to be the same as Julianus the Magician.

2. Surnamed the Egyptian, because he was for a time governor of Egypt. The Greek Anthology


contains seventy-one epigrams which bear his nam^, and in which the author appears as an imitator of earlier poems of the same kind. They are mostly of a descriptive character, and refer to works of art. Julianus probably lived in the reign of Justinian, for among his epigrams there are two upon Hy­patius, the nephew of the emperor Anasta-sius, who was put to death A. d. 532, by the command of Justinian. Another epigram is written upon Joannes, the grandson of Hypatius. (Brunck, Anal. ii. 493; Jacobs, Antliol. Grace, iii. 195 ; comp. xiii. p. 906.)

3. Of Caesareia in Cappadocia, was a contem­porary of Aedesius, and a disciple of Maximus of Ephesus. He was one of the sophists of the time, and taught rhetoric at Athens, where he enjoyed a great reputation, and attracted youths from all parts of the world, who were anxious to hear him and receive his instruction. It is not known whether Julianus wrote any works or not. (Eunap. Vit. Soph. p. 68, &c. ed. Boisson., and Wytten-bach's notes, Ibid. p. 250, &c.)

4. A Greek grammarian, who, according to Photius (Bibl. cod. 150), wrote a dictionary to the ten Attic orators, entitled a€£ikov rS>v tfapa, rots 8e/fa pifrapcri Ae£ecoi/ Kara <rTOi%e?ov ; but this, like other similar works, is entirely lost. Fa- bricius (Bibl. Gr. voUvi. p. 245) considers its author to be the same as the Julianus to whom Phrynichus dedicates the fourth book of his work. [L. S.]

JULIANUS, ANTO'NIUS, a friend and contemporary of A. Gellius, who speaks of him as a public teacher of oratory, and praises him for his eloquence as well as for his knowledge of early literature. He appears to have also devoted him­ self to grammatical studies, the fruits of which he collected in his Gommentarii, which, however, are lost. (Gell. iv. 1, ix. 15, xv.'l, xviii. 5, xix. 9, xx. 9.) [L. S.]

JULIANUS, M. AQUI'LLIUS, was consul in A. D. 38, the second year of the reign of Domitian. (Dion Cass. lix. 9; Frontin. de Aquaed.\%. [L. S.j



JULIANUS, surnamed eclanensis for the sake of distinction, is conspicuous in the ecclesi­astical history of the fifth century as one of the ablest supporters of Pelagius. His father, Memo-rius or Memor, who is believed to have presided over the see of Capua, was connected by close friendship with St. Augustine and Paulinus of Nola, the latter of whom celebrate'd the nuptials of the son with la, daughter of Aemilius, bishop of Beneventum, in a poem breathing the warmest af­fection towards the different members of the family. Julianus early in life devoted himself to the duties of the priesthood, and after passing through the subordinate grades of reader, deacon, and probably presbyter also, was ordained to the episcopal charge of Eclanum in Apulia, by Innocentius, about A. D. 416. No suspicion seems to have attached to his orthodoxy until he refused to sign the Tractona or public denunciation of Coelestius and- Pelagius, for-

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