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evidently derived from this treatise. (Plut. Romul. 14, 15, 17, Num. 7, 13, Quaest. Rom. p. 269, 278, U82, 285 ; see also Athen. iii. p. 98, b. vi. p. 229, c.) From some of these passages, it appears that Juba displayed the same tendency as many Greek writers to assign a Greek origin to all the Roman institutions. This work is styled in one passage 'PwpaiKrl dpxaio\oyia, (Steph. Byz. s. v. No^ucw/Tta), but it is evident, from the mention of Numantia, as well as that of events which occurred in the second Punic war, and even as late as the time of Sulla (Plut. Comp. Marc, et Pelop. 1, Sulla, 16), that it did not relate exclusively to the early periods of Rome, and was probably a general history.

5. 'Ctyioi^TTjres, apparently a comparison between the manners and customs of the Romans and those of the Greeks, or of synonymous terms in the two languages. (Athenae. iv. p. 170, e.)

6. QearpiKr) IffTopla. (Athen. iv. p. 175, d.; Phot. Bibl. p. 104, b. ed. Bekker ; Hesych. s. v. KAttTrefa.) This seems to have been a general treatise on all matters connected with the stage, of which the fourth book related to musical instru­ments in particular. It was a voluminous work, as the seventeenth book is mentioned by Photius (L c.). The statements cited by Athenaeus (iv. p. 177, a. 182, a. 183, e. xiv. p. 660) are evidently taken from this work.

7. Hfpi ypaQLKijs, or rrepl tyypdfyuv. (Phot Bibl. p. 103, a.; Harpocrat. s. vv. Uapfidcrios and TLohvyvwros.) It is not clear whether these two titles indicate the same work or not; but it seems probable that it was a general history of painting, including the lives of the most eminent painters. The eighth book is cited by Harpocration (s. v. Ila/5-

- 8, 9. Two little treatises of a botanical or me­dical nature ; the one concerning the plant Eu­phorbia, which grew on Mount Atlas, where Juba was the first to discover it, and to which he attri­buted many valuable medical qualities (Plin. H. N. v. 1, xxv. 38) ; the other, irepl onou, con­cerning the juice of the poppy, or opium, is cited by Galen. (Opp. vol. ii. p. 297.)

10. Tlepl <j)6opa? \€%£ws, a grammatical work, of which the second book is cited by Photius in his Lexicon, and by Suidas (s. v. ^Ko^plffai).

Lastly, an epigram by Juba upon a bad actor, of the name of Leonteus, is preserved to us by Athe­naeus (viii. p. 343). It is not calculated to give us a high opinion of the poetical powers of the royal grammarian.

His exalted station did not preserve Juba from the censure of his rivals among men of letters, and we lear)^ from Suidas (s. v. 1o£as) that his con­temporary Didymus, the celebrated grammarian, attacked him in many of his writings. Besides the passages above cited, many others will be found scattered through the works of the later Greek and Latin authors, and the lexicographers, in which the writings of Juba are quoted, but mostly without any indication of the particular work referred to. An elaborate account of his life and writings, by the Abbe Sevin, will be found in the Memoires de rAcademie des Inscriptions, vol. iv. p. 457, &c. (See also Vossius, de Historicis Graecis, p. 219, ed. Westermann ; Clinton. F. H. vol. iii. p. 201, 551; Wemsdorff, Excursus L ad Avienum, in the fifth vol. of his Poetae Latini Minores, part iii. p. 1419.)



Juba is supposed to have left two children by his wife Cleopatra, of whom his son Ptolemy suc­ ceeded him upon the throne, while his daughter Drusilla married Antonius Felix, governor of Ju­ daea. There is, however, much reason to doubt whether the latter statement is .correct. [dru­ silla.] According to Josephus (Ant. xvii. 13. § 4), he was married a second time after the death of Cleopatra to Glaphyra, daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, and widow of Alexander, the son of Herod the Great, but it seems probable that this is a mistake. (See Bayle, Dictionn. ffistorique, vol. vii. p. 90, 8vo. edit.) The statement with which Josephus follows it, that Glaphyra survived her husband, and returned after his death to the court of her father, is certainly erroneous, for Archelaus died in a. d. 17, when Juba was still living. A coin of Juba, having his head on one side and that of his wife Cleopatra on the other, is given under cleopatra [Vol. I. p. 802]. [E. H. B.]


JUBELLIUS DECIUS. [decius.] JUBE'LLIUS TAU'REA. [taurea.] JUDACI'LIUS, a native of Asculum in Pi-cenum, was one of tfie chief generals of the allies in the Social War, b. c. 90. He first commanded in Apulia where he was very successful: Canusium and Venusia, with many other towns, opened their gates to him, and some which refused to obey him he took by storm ; the Roman nobles who were made prisoners he put to death, and the common people and slaves he enrolled among his troops.' In conjunction with T. Afranius (also called Lafrenius) and P. Ventidius, Judacilius defeated Cn. Pompeius Strabo ; but when the latter had in his turn gained a victory over Afranius and laid siege to Picenum, Judacilius, anxious to save his native town, cut his way through the enemy's lines, and threw himself into the city with eight cohorts. Finding, however, that it could not possibly hold out much longer, and resolved not to survive its fall, he first put to death all his enemies, and then erected afuneralpyre within the precincts of the chief temple in the city, where he banquetted with his friends, and, after taking poison, he laid himself down on the pile, and commanded his friends to set it on fire. (Appian, B. C. i. 40, 42, 47, 48 ; Oros. v. 18.)

JUDAS (*W5as), a Greek historian and theo­ logian, who seems to have lived about the time of Alexander Severus, and wrote a chronological work poi/o7/>a<£fa) from the earliest times down to the tenth year of the emperor Alexander Severus, and dissertations on the Septuagint, but both works are lost. (Euseb. Hist. Eccl. vi. 7 ; Niceph. iv. 34 ; Hieronym. Catal. Script. Ittustr. 52.) [L. S.] JUDEX, T. VE'TTIUS, a name occurring on coins, a specimen of wbich is given below, but it is impossible to determine who this person is. Some modern writers have maintained that, in all those passages in which mention is made of the L. Vettius who gave information respecting the conspiracy of Catiline, with the surname Index, that we ought to read Judex: but 'this opinion hardly needs re-

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