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ISTER or ISTRUS flffrpos). 1. A Greek historian, who is sometimes called a native of Cy-rene, sometimes of Macedonia, and sometimes of Paphus, in the island of Cyprus. (Suid. s. v. "Iff-rpos.) These contradictory statements are reconciled by Siebelis, in the work cited below, by the supposition that Ister was born at Cyrene, that thence he proceeded with Callimachus to Alexandria, and afterwards lived for some time at Paphus, which was subject to the kings of Egypt. (Comp. Plut. Quaest. Grace. 43, who calls him an Alexandrian.) Ister is said to have been at first a slave of Callimachus, and afterwards his friend, and this circumstance determines the age of Istrus, who accordingly lived in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes, i. e. between about b. c. 250 and 220. Polemon, who was either his contemporary or lived very shortly after him, wrote against Ister.
Ister was the author of a considerable number of works, all of which are lost, with the exception of some fragments. The most important among them was, 1. an Atthis ('Arflis), of which the sixteenth book is mentioned by Harpocration (s. v. rpaire-£o<pdpos ; comp. s. v. eirsveyKeiv.} This work is often referred to under different titles, such as 'attikcj (Athen. iii. p. 74, xiii. p. 557 ; Plut. Tftes. 33) rot, rrjs (rwayooyfjs, 'Am/cat crvvaywyat, (rvvaywy/i, vAT«/cra, and others. 2. At 3Airo\\cwos €tri<f)aveiai, in which he treated of a variety of religious rites. (Pint, de Mus. 14 ; Harpocrat. s. v. <pa.pfjLa.K6s ; Phot. Lex. s. v. Tpirr^av.) 3. HroAe-/uafs. Some consider this work on the Egyptian town of Ptolemais to have been in verse, but nothing certain can be said about it. (Athen. x. p. 478.) 4. Aiyvirritov dirotfcfat, or the colonies of the Egyptians. (Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p. 322 ; Constantin. Porphyr. de Themat. i. p. 13.) 5. 'Ap-XoAi/ca, or a history of Argos. (Athen. xiv. p. 650 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. 'attics.) 6. HAia/ca. (Steph. Byz. s. v. &vtciov • Schol. in Platon. p. 380, ed. Bekker ; ad Find. OL vi. 55, vii. 146.) 7. 2vv-aywyft rwv KprjriKwv &vai<av. (Euseb. Praep. Evang. iv. 16 ; Porphyr. de Abstin. ii. 56.) 8. Ilepi idtSrriTos #0Aco*>. (Clem. Alex. Strom. iii. p. 447.) 9. MeAoTroio/. (Suid. s. v. Qpvvis ; Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub. 967; Anonym. Vit. Sophocl.) 10. 'Trroui'TftuaTa or commentaries. (Plut. Quaest. Grace. 43.) 11. 'ArTtfcal Ae£ets. (Eustath. ad Odyss. p. 1627 ; Suid. s. v. api/ov ; Phavorin. s. v. dpveios ; Hesych. s. v. cfytaAAai ; Schol. Venet. ad Iliad. k. 439.)
2. A Greek grammarian of Calatis, on the Eux- ine, is mentioned only by Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v.} KaAcms), as the author of a beautiful work, irtpl rpaytpfiias, and it is not impossible that the anonymous author of the life of Sophocles may refer to him, and not to the author of the Atthis. The fragments of the works of the latter are collected by Siebelis, Fragm. Phanodemi^ De- mon., Clitodemi) et Istri^ Lips. 1812, 8vo., and by C. and Th. MUller, Fragmenta Histor. Gh*aec. p. 418, &c. [L. S.]
ISTOM ACHUS ('lo-T^axos), the author of a work entitled 'IiriroKpdrovs a'lpeffis,. that is, the school of Hippocrates, in which he stated that Hippocrates was born 01. 80. 1. (Soranus, Vit. Hippocr.) [L. S.]
ITALICUS, one of the two kings of the Sue-vians who in a. d. 70 joined the party of Vespasian and fought against the Vitellians at Bedria-cum in Cisalpine Gaul. (Tac. Hist. iii. 5, 21.) He
was probably a son of the Italicus mentioned by the same historian (Ann. xi. 16) A. D. 47, who was invited to the chieftancy of the Cheruscans, and afterwards for his tyranny and intemperance expelled by them. In most editions of Tacitus the name is Itahis, and, whether this or Italicus be the true reading, his Teutonic appellation is probably superseded by an agnomen derived from his education at Rome while detained there as an hostage. [flavius, p. 174.] [W. B. D.]
ITALICUS SILIUS. [SiLius.]
ITALUS ('IraAos), an ancient king of the Pe- lasgians, Siculians, or Oenotrians, from whom Italy was believed to have derived its name. (Thuc. vi. 2 ; Dionys. i. 35.) Hyginus (Fab. 127) calls him a son of Telegonus by Penelope. By Electra, the daughter of Latinus, he is said to have become the father of Remus, the founder of Rome, and by Lucania, the father of the heroine Rome, to whom is likewise ascribed the foundation of Rome. (Dionys. i. 72 ;* Plut. Romul. 2; comp. Serv. ad Aen. i. 6, viii. 328; Aristot. Polit. vii. 10.) [L. S.]
ITHACUS ("Ifla/cos), a son of Pterelaus, a hero from whom Ithaca was believed to have de rived its name. (Horn. Od. xvii. 207 $ Eustath. ad Horn. pp. 307, 1815 ; Hesych. s. v.) Odysseus, king of Ithaca, is sometimes simply called Ithacus, or the Ithacan. (Ov. Ep. ex Pont. i. 3,33 ; Virg. Aen.ii. 104.) [L. S.]
ITHOMATAS ('IflwjUciTas), a surname of Zeus, derived from the Messenian hill of Ithome, where the god had a sanctuary, and where an annual festival, the Ithomaea* was celebrated in his honour. (Pans. iv. 33. § 2, &c.) [L. S..]
ITHOME (10<w>7), a nymph from whom the Messenian hill of Ithome derived its name. Ac cording to a Messenian tradition, Ithome and Neda, from whom a small river of the country de rived its name, were said to have nursed Zeus, and to have bathed the infant god in the well Clepsy dra. (Paus. iv. 33. § 2.) [L. S.]
ITONIA, ITO'NIAS, or ITO'NIS ('l™*//a, 'lT<ai>ias9 or 'itwpis), a surname of Athena, derived from the town of Iton, in the south of Phthiotis. (Paus. i. 13. § 2 ; Plut. Pyrrh. 26 ; Polyb. iv. 25; Strab. ix. p. 435; Steph.Byz. s.v.; Schol.adApollon. Rhod. i. 551, ad Callim. Hymn, in Cer. 75.) The goddess there had a celebrated sanctuary and fes tivals, and is hence also called incolaltoni. (Catull. Epitlial. P. et Th. 228.) From Iton her worship spread into Boeotia and the country about lake Copais, where the Pamboeotia was celebrated, in the neighbourhood of a temple and grove of Athena. (Paus. ix. 34. § 1 ; iii. 9, in fin.; Plut. Amat. Narr. 4.) According to another tradition, Athena received the surname of Itonia from Itonus, a king or priest. (Paus. ix. 34. § 1 j Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 721.) [L. S.]